Trading toleration for troops
Charles I and Catholics in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
in Revolutionising politics
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Catholics fought on both the royalist and parliamentarian sides during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, as both sides skirted religious tests meant to deprive Catholics of access to arms in a rush to win the war. The force of necessity provided leverage to the Catholic minority, as their wartime service enabled them to press for religious liberties they had been unable to secure in peacetime. Though these efforts ultimately failed, the negotiations over Catholic toleration during the Civil Wars demonstrate that, under the right circumstances, a minority group could wield a surprising amount of power in a divided society.

Revolutionising politics

Culture and conflict in England, 1620–60


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