Leslie Huckfield
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Apart from strong influence from North America there has been excessive reliance in many UK contributions on the interpretation of social enterprise by the EMES Research Network. The EMES WISE model descends from third sector structures which have traditionally delivered public services in many European countries. These marketised models now form a dominant discourse for an EMES emphasis on market models, which for the UK has meant the marginalisation and neglect of other mainland European contributions on the wider social economy. Mainland EU governments and EU third sector organisations have pressed for EU funding to supplement Active Labour Market Policies (ALMP), for which Christian Democrat governments faced funding difficulties. Many UK contributions show limited knowledge of ALMP funding and the politics of Christian Democracy so that pressure from the third sector for welfare reform and EU funding has been omitted from many other UK contributions. All this has contributed to further misunderstandings about the EMES WISE model. Further UK misunderstanding may arise through UK exclusion under Thatcher and Major governments from Jacques Delors’ initial projects as President of the European Commission from 1985 to 1995 to progress an EU Social Chapter. This exclusion may have contributed to some UK contributions’ underestimation of the significance of EU member states and the third sector seeking EU funds. The UK has never recovered lost ground after exclusion from these initial discussions.

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How Blair killed the co-ops

Reclaiming social enterprise from its neoliberal turn


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