Zheng Yangwen
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Lesson 3. The Long March to Modernity
in Ten Lessons in Modern Chinese History
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This chapter examines the origins of the late Qing reform and exposes the difficulties as the conservative and reformist factions battled each other both at court and around the country. Although many historians have argued that the reform was a failure, this chapter singles out a few cases to highlight the foundation it laid for later reforms and the overseas connection which would open a new door for China.

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