Games are not designer intentions
in Games are not
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A fundamental misconception concerning games is that games are communicative -- much like language is communicative -- conveying an intentional message from game designer to game player. This misconception is oft championed by those who wish to position games and game play as rhetorical tools with persuasive consequences. Yet this misconception does not fare well in confrontation with the irascible and paradoxical nature of games and game play. Game rules tend to undermine and subvert intentional game design, and game players tend to prioritize and exhibit expressive play that undermines and subverts any supposed communicative intent of game designers.

Games are not

The difficult and definitive guide to what video games are

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