Małgorzata Jakimów
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Networking under the constraints of the state and the market
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This chapter discusses how NGOs challenge the mainstream citizenship discourse and policies in relation to the first ‘site’ of citizenship contestation: civic organising. It focuses, in particular, on instances when the act of ‘networking’ transforms the wider citizenship structure. As an ‘act of citizenship’, networking is shaped by the limitations to civil and political rights of citizenship in China, and this chapter illustrates how networking can push for new practices of activist citizenship, such as volunteerism and inter-NGO networking. Through the act of networking, NGOs challenge the limitations of the hostile environment for inter-organisational networking and assembly in China, redrafting what is regarded as ‘acceptable’ for civic interactions. The chapter reflects on the tremendous obstacles due to the constrictions of political space and the transformation in the state’s approach to foreign funding under Xi Jinping, and their consequences for NGOs’ survival.

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China’s citizenship challenge

Labour NGOs and the struggle for migrant workers’ rights


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