Nikki Ikani
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Test-driving the analytical framework
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This chapter takes this book’s analytical framework on three ‘test-drives’, to assessing design and handling. Tested are the 2014/15 changes in response to Russian disinformation, the migration/asylum crisis of 2015 and the European security crisis between 2014 and 2018. In all three cases, the critical juncture included features making reform highly salient. The test-drives illustrate the various possible change outcomes and several reasons for this variety, and provide insight into the conditions under which policy changes are a likely outcome. The East StratCom Task Force illustrates how constructive ambiguity may emerge after crisis, while the asylum crisis mainly sparked symbolic and some first-order changes. The crisis in European security and defence produced first- and second-order policy changes, along with changes essentially symbolic. Not all policy change is substantive, progressive or tangible. Policy changes may cut across threefold categories, and contain elements of all three or elements that fit none.

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Crisis and change in European Union foreign policy

A framework of EU foreign policy change


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