Repressive security and civil society in France, post-9/ 11
in Counter-terrorism and civil society
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Security in France has long held a strong racial dimension, particularly with regards to the Muslim communities which have developed in France following migration from former colonies in North Africa, as well as the historic legacy of the Algerian Civil War. This has been intertwined with French national policies of state secularism (or laïcité) that have set strongly defined limits on acceptable articulations of citizenship. As such, the events of September 11, 2001 (9/11) escalated an already prevailing securitized climate against Muslim and minority communities. Such processes have led to a series of repressive structures being unequally imposed on communities and organizations within French civil society. The recent spate of terrorist attacks in France – the Charlie Hebdo attacks of January 2015, the Paris “Bataclan” attacks in November 2015, the Nice “Bastille Day” attacks in July 2016 – has been followed by the French state declaring a state of emergency in November 2015, since extended six times that has seen the erosion of several fundamental human rights of French citizens in the name of security. Furthermore, new counter-terrorist legislation has been proposed by President Macron that would permanently put into place several of the most contentious aspects of the state of emergency. This chapter analyzes the following areas of French security: the condition of French Muslim citizens throughout the process of securitization since 2001; how repressive security legislation has been enacted within various areas of French civil society and civil society organizations (CSOs); and the impact such legislation has had on wider public political sphere and political spaces.

Counter-terrorism and civil society

Post-9/11 progress and challenges

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