Civil society and the security sector in the Philippines after 9/ 11
Tensions between democracy and homeland security
in Counter-terrorism and civil society
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The Philippines is lauded as having one of the most dense and robust civil societies in the world. Born out of the anti-dictatorship struggle, it earned the reputation as a fierce defender of human rights and democracy. This chapter discusses the impact of 9/11 and the scourge of terrorism in Southeast Asia as regards the Philippine homeland from 2001 onward. It particularly examines the policies and reform programs implemented by the Macapagal-Arroyo (2001–2010) and Aquino (2010–2016) presidencies. This chapter argues that the Philippine participation in the “Global War on Terror” (GWOT) and revitalized cooperation with the United States against regional terrorism has caused an erosion in democracy and civil liberties such as the declaration of emergency rule, extra-judicial killings, and a crackdown on dissent and protest mobilizations. And while this was justified to defend the homeland, it also was used to safeguard the survival of sitting governments against oppositional elites and their partners in civil society. The case of the Philippines demonstrates that while governments can justify enhanced powers and regimes of exception for homeland security, these policies are often enforced with the overriding goals of domestic political survival and legitimacy regeneration. It concludes by offering preliminary discussion and analysis about how the Duterte administration employs and enhances existing anti-terrorism and security policy frameworks to deal with the country’s complex security challenges.

Counter-terrorism and civil society

Post-9/11 progress and challenges


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