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Conclusion
Advancing the governance of the military
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This concluding chapter summarises the critical aspects of the governance of the military under democracy covered in the book. It provides final explanations to how governing the military is influenced and shaped by issues of democracy, governance, and policymaking. The chapter sheds light on the most relevant explanatory outcomes identified in the book that were considered critical, but suggests that improvements are necessary: directing attention to civil-military relations; expanding subordination to civilians; defining missions and roles; augmenting control and effectiveness; controlling expenditure; enhancing interagency collaboration; finding a purpose for international engagements; and generating transparency and integrity. The chapter concludes three main points to advance the governance of the armed forces. Firstly, because the Chilean military was so crucial in dealing with the external threats of the Cold War, turning the page to the new security scenario after democratisation posited more relevant questions stressing the governance efforts to politically manage the military. Secondly, there is uncertainty towards what roles the military should take under foreign and domestic missions, on the one hand, and whether civilians have enough expertise and independence to lead the military when societal pressures seem most intense. Finally, a convergence of views between civilians and the military show that there is willingness, maybe not uniformly across the board, to agree on proposals that a decade-and-a-half ago would have found considerable opposition (i.e., autonomy over military affairs, transparency on operations and internal governance, among others). Chilean elected authorities have tightened their grip, making the transition to democracy substantially more successful through hindering, whenever possible, military prerogatives to strengthen democratic practices.

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Governing the military

The armed forces under democracy in Chile

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