Robert Mason
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For millennia, the Red Sea has been one of the main bodies of water which has facilitated trade, connected ancient kingdoms and ports, and become a linchpin of maritime supremacy, security and control. Today that calculation for states with interests spanning the Mediterranean, the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean has not changed. This chapter charts the evolution of historic, Cold War, and emerging superpower competition, and dissects the political and security preferences within the Horn of Africa, including economic choices vis-à-vis China and states’ search for relative autonomy in the international system. It also asserts that a resurgent Turkey, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates (primarily linked to their threat perception and participation in the Yemen conflict) and Egypt (primarily due to its national security concerns such as the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam) represent challenges and opportunities for the Horn of Africa states.

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The Gulf States and the Horn of Africa

Interests, influences and instability

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