Tarcisio Gazzini
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The collective security system in practice
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This chapter discusses the extent to which the collective security system established in the United Nations Charter could function in the 1990s in spite of the non-implementation of Arts. 43 et seq. of the Charter. The enlargement of the notion of threat to international peace, already noticeable in 1992, is one of the most striking features of the Security Council's recent practice. The prevailing and more convincing view admits that the Security Council may overcome the non-implementation of Art. 43 through the conclusion of ad hoc agreements with Member States. The main lesson learned from the United Nations' recent practice is that peace-keeping and peace-enforcement are mutually exclusive options. The authorisation practice constitutes the Security Council's attempt to over-come the non-implementation of Art. 43 of the Charter as an alternative to enforcement measures put at the disposal of the United Nations by Member States on an ad hoc basis.

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