Chapter 3 focuses on competition. What was the nature of early competition? We will assess the concept of the challenge match and also evaluate how such events contributed to the early development of the sport. We will take examples from across the country and from different phases of the nineteenth century. We will then move on to a consideration of leagues and cups. In their time, they were revolutionary developments. Today we accept them as the norm, but then, they were new and novel. How and why did leagues and cups emerge? And what kind of reaction did they elicit?