in The ascent of globalisation
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While advances in transport and communications technology drove the first phase of globalisation (1870-1914), it fell prey to short-sighted policies pursued by the major powers. The lesson learned by internationalists, who would assume position of power during the Second World War, was that the postwar order would need to be protected by international institutions and rules.

The prologue introduced three phases to the construction of the postwar architecture, around which the book is structured. Part I examines the emergence of the international global order, which saw the construction of the UN, IMF, World Bank and European Union. Next came the neoliberal global order in which the markets for goods, services and capital were opened up. Finally, in response to the unintended consequences of neoliberal globalism, the UN and its agencies worked with transnational corporations to implement policies and programmes to give markets a human face.

By the twenty-first century, no single blueprint emerged, and these three models coexisted, sometimes uncomfortably.


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