Instruments of state violence in hybridising regimes
The case of post-communist Russia
in Violence and the state
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This chapter examines how violence is utilised in political transitions away from democratic consolidation towards hybrid forms. Using the case of post-communist Russia, three types of violence are identified. The first, ablation, occurred after the Russian Federation emerged as a proto-democracy. The second, scapegoating, came alongside Russia’s political reformulation in the late 1990s and early 2000s, driven by the authoritarian vision articulated by Vladimir Putin. The third is nullification. This accompanied the consolidation of the hybrid semi-authoritarian Russian state, and refers to an attempt to create external conditions favourable for regional hegemony. Each type differed in severity, linked directly to internal and existential threats, as well as the extent to which elites perceived their hold on power to be under challenge.

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