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Limits and possibilities of the new consensus
in Germany, pacifism and peace enforcement
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The third phase of Germany's conversion process lasted from 1999 to the outbreak of war in Iraq in the spring of 2003 and the first major EU-led intervention of the same year, Operation Artemis in Congo. Changing constellations of proponents and opponents and changing issues characterised the three phases that gradually moved Germany away from principled military abstention to a policy of conditional engagement in the full spectrum of out-of-area engagements. In the years after the Kosovo War, it became clear how different logics defined the limits and possibilities of the new German willingness to engage in international crisis management. It revealed how the dispatch of German soldiers to distant trouble spots had become possible on the condition, however, that Germany's partners participated and that the mission served a clear and primarily humanitarian purpose.

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