11 September 2001
A new perspective unfolds
in Security in a greater Europe
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The 11 September 2001 case serves to illuminate important dividing lines and convergences among the European actors. For many, it signified a paradigm shift after which international interaction abandoned its dominant focus on state-to-state relations. A new, diffuse and not even united actor—international terrorism—had interrupted the ordinary mechanisms of international relations. This chapter discusses the dramatic events that led to major transformations in the machinery of the international system. It examines the actors' framing of 11 September 2001, from the terrorist attacks to the official end of the US campaign in Afghanistan on 5 December 2001, when an agreement on the future of Afghanistan was signed in Rome.

Security in a greater Europe

The possibility of a pan-European approach


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