Mark Webber
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The European Union: ‘overcoming the divisions of Europe and restoring the unity of the continent’
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As the Cold War ended, a reinvigorated role for the European Union (EU) required of its leaders a major political, even intellectual, readjustment. Prior to 1989, the European Community had enlarged on three occasions. To the original six members of the then European Economic Community (France, Italy, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) were added Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom in 1973, Greece in 1981 and, five years later Spain and Portugal. These enlargements were, however, entirely consistent with the Cold War division of Europe. From its inception, the process of European integration has been explicitly informed by a desire among the governments of Europe to preserve peace on the continent. This chapter explores security governance and security community in the EU, partnership and enlargement, inclusion and exclusion, and the limits of enlargement. To assess how the limits of enlargement are to be gauged and how these relate to security governance, the chapter also turns to the categories of region, institutionalisation, and compliance. Finally, it describes the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Justice and Home Affairs.

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