Turkey: ‘neither in nor out’
in Inclusion, exclusion and the governance of European Security
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The question of Turkey's relationship to Europe's security community is, in one sense, a seemingly superfluous one; the country has, after all, been a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation for decades. Yet in a post-Cold War Europe where security community and European security governance are increasingly linked to the European Union (EU) as much as the Alliance, the question has seemed more and more pertinent. Turkey's exclusion from the EU, moreover, sits alongside other controversial and sometimes fraught issues: the question of Cyprus, relations with Greece, a difficult democratic transition and, in broad terms, the matter of Europeanness. These, and other matters, have on occasion pitted Turkey against both public and elite opinion in Europe and, indeed, have caused division within Turkey itself. On these grounds, the issue of inclusion and exclusion has been a live one in Turkey's relationship with Europe for decades, if not centuries. This chapter discusses Turkey's search for inclusion in Europe and looks at the categories of region, institutionalisation and compliance.


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