Gibraltar has a very long history. There is archaeological evidence of human settlement on the peninsula stretching back several thousand years. This book focuses on the policing of entry and the regulations that Britain's colonial authorities put in place, also analysing the origins of those who did secure settlement in Gibraltar. This exercise is particularly necessary because the ethnicity of people in other places has been translated by them into a sense of national identity, and this has carried political implications. The second major theme of the book is to consider why settlers came and stayed. Several chapters explore aspects of the economic history of Gibraltar. First, the book discusses the demographic roots of Gibraltarian identity during the period 1704–1819, before turning to Gibraltar's fortress economy between 1704 and 1815 and its government and politics. It also looks at Gibraltar's economy and living standards in the nineteenth century.