In the early nineteenth century, Gibraltar's population growth was very rapid, even though punctured by massive drops when epidemics hit. Thereafter it grew dramatically, albeit more slowly. Nevertheless, it would be a mistake to deduce too much about the economy from the number of people living in Gibraltar at any one time, or from the slowing down of population growth from the 1830s. The colony's managers tried to obstruct inward migration and settlement, and many of those whose economic livelihoods depended directly on Gibraltar lived across the border in Spain. Because of population growth, civilian families in Gibraltar were also becoming increasingly dependent on outside supplies and on British government support. This chapter examines occupations and civilians' living standards in order to see how the resources and opportunities generated by economic activity were divided in Gibraltar, first considering demand and supply, import and export, and management of Gibraltar's economy.