It was fortunate that, in the nineteenth century, the circumstances in which people in Gibraltar found themselves were eventually conducive to an improvement in material living standards. The important contextual elements facilitating economic activity included, first, the political stability and legal infrastructure provided by colonial authority and, second, investment, eventually, in public services such as water supply and improved sanitation. It is possible that the circumstances for natives of Gibraltar began to shape a British Gibraltarian identity as ‘better off’ in comparison with the ‘other’ across the frontier. It is therefore important to consider for the twentieth century what happened to Gibraltar's occupational structure and to the material rewards that accrued to Gibraltarians. This chapter explores how Gibraltarians earned a living during the twentieth century, focusing on such economic activities as import and export, tourism, finance and gambling, and also looks at occupations, living standards and health.