From the beginning of the century, the absolute right of all British subjects to take up residence in Gibraltar had been removed. Gibraltar for Gibraltarians signalled a distinctive and civilian identity. Moreover, the economic dependence of civilians on British garrison expenditure, although for a very long time not absolute, had been further reduced, in part as a result of government-led initiatives to diversify the economy, in part by the ambitions of civilian entrepreneurs and in part with the beginning of the rundown in the British military presence – though the step towards greater economic self-reliance had been complicated, latterly and considerably, by problems with Spain. This chapter focuses on government and politics in Gibraltar from 1915 to 1940, first looking at governors and law during 1915–1969 and then turning to the City Council and Executive Council to 1940. It also discusses the colonial government and housing between 1921 and 1940, before concluding with the politics of taxation during 1914–1939.