White Guards and Black Hundreds
Existing concepts of counter-revolution
in Fighting fascism
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Despite a general agreement as to the essential political alignment of fascism, the parties of the left differed concerning its relationship to the state and other social forces, as well as over how best to oppose it. These elements of concurrence and divergence regarding fascism can be seen in the left's responses to earlier and parallel movements. The differences in their analyses lay in the fundamentally different psychologies of reformist and revolutionary parties, and in the contrasting conclusions each drew from their experience of the war itself and from the bitter struggles that convulsed Europe between the Russian revolution of 1917 and Mussolini's assumption of power in Italy in 1922. It was these formative events that set in place the prism through which fascism was initially perceived by the British left. An examination of certain features of these years, which perhaps seem disparate and unrelated at first glance, but which later emerge either as aspects of fascist movements, regimes or ideology, is therefore valuable.

Fighting fascism

The British left and the rise of fascism, 1919–39


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