Fascism and war
in Fighting fascism
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As the 1930s progressed, the left had new opportunities to observe fascism and deepen its understanding of the phenomenon. In Spain in 1936, there was another assault from the right on a European democracy. Despite the differing perspectives the left parties had of the Spanish Civil War, there was broad agreement on the nature and purpose of the fascist challenge there. In Italy, Mussolini's regime had become firmly established, the final centres of opposition were nullified and the actions of a ‘mature’ fascist state could be seen. In Germany, Hitler had moved far more quickly than his Italian counterpart to impose a dictatorship, and the nature of a functioning economy under Nazism soon became apparent. The early claims of fascist and Nazi movements as to the kind of societies they would create and the balance of class relations they would oversee could now be tested against reality.

Fighting fascism

The British left and the rise of fascism, 1919–39


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