This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book focuses on controversy over the advancement of the techno-politics in the contested terrain of cyberspace, and its relation to existing political structures. It outlines a theoretical framework by which activists' use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) can be explored. The book examines how environmentalists' attitudes to inclusion are translated into their use of CMC and explores the ways in which they have secured access to CMC, the problems they have encountered and how they have tackled them. It also examines environmental activists' understandings of, and reactions to, online surveillance and counter-strategy and the implications of these threats for perceptions of CMC as a space for activism. The book also explores ways in which environmentalists could extend their use of the technology to developing CMC as a tool of protest.