The use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) might contribute to the formation of new forms and processes of politics, or cyberspace itself may become normalised, its politics merely reflecting offline politics. This chapter outlines the most suitable theoretical framework for the analysis of environmentalists' activities to establish a coherent understanding of technological change. Social movement theories explain the formation, nature and workings of social movements, and explore the how and the why of their actions and their impact upon civil society. Any examination of CMC use by activists requires not only an understanding of the processes of political activism but a framework through which technological change can be conceptualised. There has been relatively little attempt to examine the implications of CMC use within social movement debates.