The French and Scottish Reformations were connected. Scots such as the young Earl of Arran had been converted in France, and Scottish and French Protestant nobles were in regular contact. Even in the Netherlands, the rumours of a Spanish invasion of Scotland were inflaming religious discord. Just as revolutionary religion had been decisive in the beginning of the Scottish rebellion, so it was decisive in determining that rebellion's outcome. In December 1559, Maitland of Lethington claimed that religious opinion was the decisive factor in determining support for the Congregation. The English helped the Congregation because doing so offered a chance to disrupt the Franco-Scottish alliance and so to secure England's northern border. Trust in the auld allies could probably have been recovered, but it would have to have been bought back in the currency of religious freedom.