Radicals, evangelicals, the Scottish Enlightenment and Cape Colonial autocracy
in The Scots in South Africa
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By the middle of the nineteenth century, the Cape had acquired the full range of literary, philosophical, educational and scientific institutions, all supported by a flourishing periodical and press sector. With the exception, perhaps, of the Royal Observatory, directed in this period by a Cumbrian and an Irishman, Scots had been central to all these developments. Moreover the college, library, museum, garden and observatory were more or less connected with wider international networks of learning, in which Scots could be found working in many other territories of the British Empire. Despite the continuation of forms of autocratic colonial government in the early part of the period, the 1820s were an extraordinary decade in the development of the intellectual, press, educational and scientific institutions of the colony, laying the foundations, sometimes firm, sometimes tentative, for the more significant developments of subsequent decades.

The Scots in South Africa

Ethnicity, identity, gender and race, 1772–1914

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