This chapter argues for increasing recognition of the diversity of the white presence during modern Australia's foundational narrative and for the complex place narratives created by subaltern settler groups as they imbued the landscape with their own sense of self. Place was central to Irish and Scottish diasporic experience. The ethnic diversity of the nineteenth-century British and Irish migration stream to Australia added hitherto under-regarded cultural complexity to the hegemonic white presence on that continent. The Irish migration stream contained various ethnic traditions claiming descent from different periods in the country's history in a complex mix of religion, culture, language and genetics. Churches of all denominations became places where diasporic identities were continuously redefined. Colonial settlement in Victoria and New South Wales was the outcome of individual and collective understanding and aspiration informed by memory and experience.