Christopher Tyerman
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The end of colonial consensus
in The Debate on the Crusades
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This chapter looks at fate of the colonial model. The publication of René Grousset's Histoire witnessed the highwater mark of the Franco-German colonial model. The attacks on the nineteenth-century 'positive' colonial model came from a number of quarters, deriving not only from fresh scrutiny of the evidence but from the ideological and political stances of the historians. Joshua Prawer linked the colonialism of Outremer with the European expansion of the early modern period in Africa, the Atlantic and the Americas. The challenge to colonialism and imperialism mirrored the uneven collapse of European hegemony and self-confidence in the half century from 1914. Only with the establishment of western-style university history departments in the wake of Zionist settlement were the medieval Frankish settlements studied by scholars resident in the same geographic space. Local Arab scholars displayed little interest in serious study of the colonial model crusades.

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