in Networks of sound, style and subversion
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This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book conceptualises punk and post-punk as 'music worlds' existing both on the local, city level and also spanning towns and cities, on a national level by drawing upon Howard Becker's concept of 'art worlds'. It suggests that punk had a mixed-class base, but was largely white in its first incarnation and also a preserve of the young. The chapter argues the fact that Liverpool, Manchester and other cities have been the point of origin and geographical centre of different music worlds both before and after punk. Competition was equal to cooperation in the process whereby the network cultivated a punk world, as it would be in the networks of Manchester, Liverpool, Sheffield and all other towns and cities which were to host punk and post-punk worlds.

Networks of sound, style and subversion

The punk and post-punk worlds of Manchester, London, Liverpool and Sheffield, 1975–80




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