The renaissance of the child
Educational theory and the teaching of history
in Citizenship, Nation, Empire
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Chapter Two explores the impact of Herbartianism on British educational culture, interrogating why Herbartian theorists prioritised the teaching of history through reading books. It is organised into five sections. The first introduces both Herbartian theories and key educationists, arguing that too little is known about the significance of this pedagogical system and its highly influential advocates. The second section discusses the state of child psychology in late-Victorian Britain and perceived need to gear schooling towards moral and civic values. The third examines how Herbartians thought history should best be taught in order to draw out moral lessons and thus contribute to citizenship education, especially through the teaching of chronology and empathy. The fourth section develops this analysis, demonstrating how Herbartians used history to provide a series of lessons in what they dubbed ‘race recapitulation theory’. The chapter finishes with some comments on how these pedagogical developments influenced later educational psychologists.

Citizenship, Nation, Empire

The Politics of History Teaching in England, 1870–1930

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