Anti-racist solidarity in Britain with South African sports
The success of the Stop the Seventy Tour Committee (STST) in halting the 1970 tour of England by a white South African cricket team represented a remarkable victory over racism in general and the apartheid nature of South African sport in particular. The STST had formed in 1969 and was the catalyst helping to generate an inspiring mass grassroots movement of international solidarity which included mass non-violent civil disobedience and militant direct action on a scale in the world of sport previously unseen in Britain. Focused mainly on the protests against the South African rugby union tour, it was a campaign in defiance of police brutality and violent racist intimidation which involved over 50,000 people. The question of apartheid South Africa had helped politicise and radicalise a generation of young activists in Britain. These young activists then, in turn, amid the wider revolutionary tumult of ’68 and workers and student protest internationally, helped transform a campaign based on a strategy of ‘respectability’ and appeals to ideas of ‘fair play’ by elite figures in the world of British politics, sport and civil society into a mass grassroots movement that inspired further anti-apartheid activism internationally. This chapter recovers some of what David Featherstone has called ‘the hidden histories and geographies of internationalism’ in relation to the campaigns around the politics of South African sport in 1960s Britain to situate the interconnections between these and wider radical activism in this tumultuous period.
Chapter 3 begins the interview analysis with an account of conversations with Alison Farrell and John Callaghan. It proposes that we understand Alison’s early encounters with punk as epiphanic, that is, as marking a transition from one kind of subjectivity to another. Beginning with her account of growing up in Dungannon, it also proposes that we do not think too narrowly about ‘Belfast punk’ and instead consider the multiple movements and spaces that this name includes, a multiplicity that is reinforced by some of John Callaghan’s memories of the scene. As well as introducing the notion of epiphany that will be used throughout the analysis, the chapter moves on to introduce anecdote and the anecdotal as important forms of narration which will be analysed across the book. It does this by discussing three anecdotes about movement and mobility offered by Alison in her narrative of taking part in the punk scene. In conclusion, it returns to the question of structure of feeling and popular memory to consider the continued relevance of punk in Alison’s life, and how she makes this relevance apparent within intergenerational memory.
Historical International Relations and the environment
What would historical International Relations (IR) look like without a sharp distinction between the history of the ‘natural’ and the ‘social’? How would our histories of the core categories of disciplinary IR, such as power, sovereignty, or territory, change? This chapter explores these questions by focusing on the role of fish in international relations, in two different ways. The first section takes a broad global historical perspective, making the case that fish have played a strong role in influencing the direction of maritime empires’ development. In contrast to many accounts in which maritime empire or sea power is largely dependent on land-based phenomena, for example through trade with terrestrial societies, control of the sea has in many cases historically been sought after in pursuit of the sea’s own contents. The second section makes a more specific argument about the place of fish in the global history of territoriality, examining scientific debates about overfishing, from the late nineteenth century onwards. Overfishing was initially shown by the philosopher of science Thomas Huxley to be impossible, but this conclusion was overturned by later scientists, leading states to reverse a longstanding international legal principle and claim exclusive fishing areas. The current territorialisation of the ocean, then, is to a significant degree an outcome of human interactions with fish.
The first chapter begins by interrogating the basic assumptions, rules and frameworks that guide mainstream, market-centric economic thinking. These are the foundations of green capitalist thought, informing most climate and environmental governance and the institutions that generate it.
This chapter again works with two interviews, in this instance with Hector Heathwood and Claire Shannon, to consider the importance of gender in the punk scene. Beginning with Hector’s interview, it suggests that punk allowed Hector to express a critique of some of the edicts of hegemonic masculinity in Belfast, while also leaving some elements of this masculinity intact. It also highlights punk’s role in opening Hector’s eyes to alternative possibilities and modes of living, even while material and social conditions made some of these possibilities impossible. Turning to Claire, it suggests that punk, again, functioned as a means for her to transgress certain boundaries of respectability; but it also highlights Claire’s critical sense of the limits of this transgression, and of the reproduction of certain regressive or reactionary politics within the punk scene. In conclusion, the chapter proposes that the specific trajectory of both Hector and Claire (as people who no longer live in Northern Ireland) may explain some of the particularities of their narratives.
The final chapter highlights how the emerging green capitalist policy programme – from nature as a financial asset to the untenability of ‘decoupled’ growth – comes up at every turn against the physical constraints of a global economy marred by inequality, and a natural world whose complexity cannot be efficiently priced and traded nor converted to terms compliant with optimising financial risk profiles.
Solidarity through metonymy in a refugee magazine from the GDR
This chapter analyses the ways a Greek-language emigres' magazine articulated notions of solidarity with the so-called Third World in the 1960s. Published in East Germany by political refugees of the Greek Civil War, the illustrated magazine Pyrsos expressed the political strategies and imaginings of the Left within and outside Greece. The chapter examines the aesthetic and political manifestations of solidarity, demonstrating that these are rendered visible in the magazine's visuality and intertextuality. It focuses on the magazine's discourse on the Vietnam War to argue that its articulation of solidarity was intellectually and aesthetically entangled with notions of identification and metonymy. In these, the plead for the liberation and democratisation of Greece was ‘inserted' within an anti-imperialist, anti-US, Third-Worldist struggle. In this sense, the chapter unearths the specific cultural histories and highlights the hidden accounts that unfolded from the margins during the Cold War, de-centring established, primarily Western-centric, paradigms of solidarity. By teasing out existing definitions of solidarity, this chapter speaks to the role of political publishing and contributes to scholarship on the visual and aesthetic dimensions of solidarity in the 1960s.
This chapter argues that International Relations has overlooked the seas as a changing global space, and encourages adopting a terraqueous understanding of world politics. Invoking materialist conceptions of geography and history, it explores the ordering of oceans, the international relations of lives spent at or close to the sea, and the international implications of warmer, acidified and expanding seas. It looks at maritime trade and labour, piracy and shipping as global phenomena. The chapter considers these broad issues with a historical-sociological lens, and in conversation with reference to both classical and more contemporary theorists of the relationship between land and sea.
The introduction sets up the argument and structure of the book, firstly through a brief narrative history of the emergence of the punk scene in Belfast from the mid-1970s through to the mid-1980s, then through an account of the specific oral history method used throughout the text to narrate that history. It stresses the importance of everyday life, of the complexities of sectarianism and of subjective composure to the project, and concludes by outlining the structure of the book.