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Friendship, love, and theatre
Silvija Jestrovic

This chapter explores friendship, love, and theatre as notions and practices closely related to the idea of communism. Is it possible to think about categories of friendship, love, and theatre as having the potential to epitomise a form of micro-communism? Understanding micro-communism as a kind of communism of the everyday, the chapter looks at the relationship between the public and the private, trying to go beyond the binary and perhaps negotiate the place of the personal within the communal. Casting some brief glimpses into the life of the prodigious Eleanor Marx, the chapter explores the correlation between theory and biography, the latter being understood as a form and evidence of practice – a mode of revolutionary being/doing that could offer an entry point into exploring these categories as forms of micro-communism.

in Theatre, activism, subjectivity
1780s to 1870s
Peter Morgan Barnes

Beginning with an examination of the nineteenth-century preoccupation with authenticity and originality, the chapter explores the pressure which pasticcio practices experienced across many artforms. Practices changed in sculpture and antiquities as well as opera, to accommodate new Romantic ideals. It was argued in the twentieth century that pasticcio opera was discontinued early in the century as a shift towards fidelity occurred. This chapter lists numerous examples of its continuity, both for operas that designated themselves as pasticci and those that called themselves something else. This continuity is found in regional opera and in London. In recontextualising the centrality of text for nineteenth-century musical practice within the shift towards mass literacy, the chapter proposes that advocates for fidelity did not have the influence claimed. In defining fidelity and pasticcio as binary opposites much is missed: pasticcio practices were often relied on to bring greater fidelity to an opera, bringing it closer to its source material, to what were considered timeless behaviours, to national stereotyping or the locale in which the story was set. These fidelities were achieved at the expense of that to the original score, but these other fidelities were often a greater priority, even for reformers.

in Pasticcio opera in Britain
Open Access (free)
The role of the internationals
Johanna Mannergren
,
Annika Björkdahl
,
Susanne Buckley-Zistel
,
Stefanie Kappler
, and
Timothy Williams

Chapter 4 focuses on the role of international actors in the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda, how they feature as a trope in current memory politics and what impact this has on the quality of peace. The chapter argues that the creation of an enemy outside of Rwanda is a mnemonic formation that serves the function of forging a coherent identity in a country still heavily affected by the experience of genocide. It explores various sites related to the role of internationals during the genocide, including the Kigali Genocide Memorial and the Murambi Genocide Memorial. These sites clearly articulate the government’s official narrative about the role of the internationals. Various Rwandan and international memory agents have been key in attributing meaning to their role in the run-up to and during the genocide, highlighting the preparatory role of colonialism, international inaction by the UN and the international community during genocide, and even a collaboration of the French state with Hutu extremists. Memory politics in Rwanda is hegemonically structured. As the SANE analysis shows, these narratives can support legitimacy for the government, even at the expense of some facets of the quality of peace.

in Peace and the politics of memory
Contesting authority on the early modern stage
Author:

This book offers the first in-depth examination into the metaphorical and symbolic significations of Shakespeare’s transitional spaces. It advances recent critical developments in the way the playwright created his worlds to reflect concurrent cartographic, geopolitical and social anxieties. In seeking to expose the dynamics and fluctuations of power on the stage, the book demonstrates how liminal settings such as forests, battlefields, shores and gardens were often employed to subvert centralised structures of power. The nuanced consideration of these spaces reveals that they were ideally suited to the staging of social frictions, as traced through the shifting balance of power between opposing ideological standpoints and the internal struggles between an emergent subjectivity and conformity with the centralised authorities of Church and Court. The book also presents a decisive resolution to long-standing critical disputes over the movement of power and the potential for subversion in both mental and physical representations of place, space and location. Shakespeare's liminal spaces provides a unique set of perspectives through which Shakespeare’s liminal settings and geographic referents are revealed as deliberate dramatic devices with the capacity to destabilise social structures.

Attia Hosain’s fiction and non-fiction in Distant Traveller
Ambreen Hai

Attia Hosain’s work is well-known among specialists in Anglophone South Asian literary studies, but almost unheard of among scholars of twentieth-century British literature. Yet as an aristocratic Indian Muslim woman who migrated to England in 1947, just before Indian independence, who became a British citizen and lived in London until her death in 1998, and who wrote and published all her major fiction in England, Hosain clearly crosses over, and deserves attention from scholars in a variety of fields. Feminist and postcolonial scholars have focused on Hosain’s pathbreaking novel, Sunlight on a Broken Column (1961), but not many have paid attention to her modernist short stories (many collected in her 1953 volume Phoenix Fled), and none to her posthumously published volume Distant Traveller (2013) which includes additional short stories, her memoir essay ‘Deep Roots’, and her unfinished novel ‘No New Lands, No New Seas’. Approaching Hosain’s work afresh from the vantage point of questions central to Mid-Century Women’s Writing, Hai argues that reading Distant Traveller as the work of a British and (post)colonial Indian writer both helps us see new aspects of Hosain’s writing and complicates our understandings of British women writers’ responses to post-war, postimperial Britain.

in Mid-century women's writing
Rebecca West’s wartime journalism
Debra Rae Cohen

In 1941, the Atlantic excerpted, over the course of five monthly issues, huge dollops of Rebecca West’s magnum opus Black Lamb and Grey Falcon. As she completed this manuscript in the early months of the war, and overlapping its publication, she issued as well a series of short pieces addressed to her American readership – short vignettes on the Blitz, on rationing, on housekeeping during wartime. These pieces for the New Yorker and the Saturday Evening Post partake, Cohen argues, of some of the formal elements of the larger work, in which (as described elsewhere), West stages the interplay between public and private discourses, mixing the domestic and the panoramic in order to derive a multiple witnessing persona. In these articles, too, she turns back on England itself the evocation of national character from collective quotidian practice that marks the landscape of Black Lamb. Read in this context, the pieces serve to illuminate both West’s compositional practice and her gendered vision of the nation.

in Mid-century women's writing
Open Access (free)
The legacies of colonialism
Johanna Mannergren
,
Annika Björkdahl
,
Susanne Buckley-Zistel
,
Stefanie Kappler
, and
Timothy Williams

Chapter 5 investigates the memoryscape of South Africa as it is shaped by the legacy of colonialism. It shows that the memory landscape as it pertains to colonialism is starkly divided between those who take that landscape for granted or even feel nostalgic about it and those who are seeking to challenge and transform it from different perspectives. It further argues that the mnemonic formation of colonialism has been sidelined as a result of the primary attention paid to apartheid, and suggests that apartheid should be viewed as an extension of colonialism, rather than separate from it. The various manifestations of colonialism, and of resistance against it, produce a much more complex picture of the South African post-colonial memoryscape than the commonly assumed binary distinction between black and white South African experiences. Articulations of resistance against colonial legacies have only recently been gaining more traction. To demonstrate this, the chapter investigates a diversity of sites, agents, narratives and events that deal with the past of colonialism as well as the legacy of colonial violence. The SANE analysis of their interplay casts light on a segmented memoryscape that is shaped by mnemonic variations and dissonance in the ways in which European colonial presence is remembered today. We thus seek to understand why South Africa has struggled to achieve a peace that is considered ‘just’ and to illustrate how resistance is being mobilised to challenge the lingering power of colonialism.

in Peace and the politics of memory
Claire Parfitt

Chapter two, following on from the argument in the previous chapter which uses the moral economy concept as an analytical tool, argues that the contemporary period is characterised by a “speculative moral economy”. This moral economy has two key, contradictory features. First, it is underlaid by the responsible capital imaginary, insisting that it is possible to simultaneously “do well” (make profits) and “do good” (be ethical). Contemporary business ethics asserts that profit-making and social justice are not merely compatible but mutually beneficial. Second, this moral economy is operationalised through risk management, generating a derivative logic of ethics. Ethical questions are treated as risks and are managed, like other risks, through financial mechanisms. Ethics become capital, but at the same time, capital accumulation produces a particular market-compatible ethics.

in False profits of ethical capital
Abstract only
Utpal Dutt’s Kallol (1965) and the question of ‘spectacular’ aesthetics in Calcutta’s Leftist theatre practice
Trina Nileena Banerjee

From the late 1950s onwards, the celebrated Marxist playwright and director Utpal Dutt’s aesthetic and political language deeply influenced the shape and direction of much of India’s progressive theatre practice. However, this influence did not develop without its share of controversies. In the Calcutta of the 1960s, both the form and content of an ideal revolutionary theatre were under debate. The widely pondered question was: what should a true ‘people’s theatre’ look like? This chapter revisits one aspect of these debates among Leftist theatre critics, practitioners, and activists in Calcutta: the politics of stage design in Utpal Dutt’s plays from this time. The ethics and politics of ‘spectacular’ staging in Dutt’s plays were widely debated. How were these controversies related to the larger ideology of Leftist theatre in Bengal? How did Dutt formulate his own notion of theatrical form in relation to his politics as a playwright, dramaturg, and director? How were Dutt’s international, political, and artistic influences, which ranged from Piscator and Brecht to Okhlopkov and Eisenstein at this time, responsible for shaping his vision of a revolutionary stage of this magnitude, quite unprecedented in the Calcutta of the time? Was the monumentality of Khyber merely physically spectacular, or was it embedded in an international history of revolutionary aesthetics?

in Theatre, activism, subjectivity
Marietta Meier
,
Mario König
, and
Magaly Tornay

The chapter examines three distinct flows that emerged from and were nourished by clinical trials: material, information, and financial flows. The pharmaceutical industry supplied investigational drugs and pharmacological and toxicology reports, and transferred money and received orders for substances. Kuhn organised the flow of materials and information in the clinic; he administered substances to patients, passed drugs on to their relatives, clinic staff, and other doctors; and he reported the results of his trials to companies and colleagues. Because the different drugs, information, and funds took very different paths, a widely ramified network was created that extended far beyond the connection between Münsterlingen and the pharmaceutical industry.

in On trial