Browse

You are looking at 101 - 110 of 27,529 items for

  • Refine by access: All content x
Clear All
Abstract only
Acting, stardom and national identity
Author: Andrew Spicer

Andrew Spicer’s ground-breaking study provides an authoritative and comprehensive account of the career of this iconic star. He highlights the importance of Connery’s early career, especially his television work that included Shakespeare, before dissecting the ‘Bond phenomenon’, which propelled Connery to international stardom on an unprecedented scale for a British actor but erased his own identity as a commodified serial star. Connery’s twenty-year struggle to escape ‘Bondage’ is discussed at length: his attempts to play against that image in The Hill (1965) and The Offence (1973) and his gradual emergence as an epic, mythic presence in the mid-1970s in The Wind and the Lion, The Man Who Would Be King and Robin and Marian. The study analyses how Connery’s reinvention of himself as a father-mentor enabled him to enjoy a second period of superstardom from The Untouchables (1987) onwards and to ‘age successfully’. How this mythic persona modulated into an all-encompassing ‘screen legend’ is analysed cogently. Spicer also emphasises the significance of Connery’s complex embodiment of national identity, imbuing his screen characters with a working-class Scottishness and through his public role as an activist campaigning for Scottish independence. Throughout, Spicer emphasises the importance of situating stars within their mutable economic and cultural contexts as they struggle for creative control over their careers. Drawing on wide range of archival and other sources, this innovative study’s illumination of one of modern cinema’s greatest, longest-enduring and most distinctive stars will become essential reading for those interested in the phenomenon of stardom.

Abstract only
Sophie Vasset

This chapter reasserts the importance of illness and medicine in watering places. Sick bodies took centre stage, and spa towns were first and foremost places of cure and care rather than the clean and sparkling Georgian places of leisure to which they have sometimes been reduced. The chapter opens on the major literary references regularly invoked for eighteenth-century spas: the novels of Smollett, Austen and Burney, stressing how their initial attraction to the spa was rooted in one character’s illness. It also relies on letter-writers’ testimonies to show the degree of trust that could be placed in the curative virtues of mineral waters and thus fight the idea that illness was only a pretext to visit spas. A second section presents the various forms of sickness which could require water treatment, and which were regularly written about in medical treatises, namely gout and nervous diseases, sex-related diseases and diseases of the skin. The one characteristic they all share is they are chronic. Spas are therefore relevant to the cultural history of chronic diseases, as they were integrated in wider forms of care than the reductive patient–doctor relationship, which is only a small fraction of the experience of sickness. It suggests that the focus could be shifted from the sickness to the sick and their experiences, and spas are a good place to start, with the multiple case histories presented in mineral water treatises.

in Murky waters
Abstract only
Fountainbridge Films, 1991–2003
Andrew Spicer

Chapter 6 continues the discussion of ageing stars and the cultural politics of the father-mentor, but its core concern is with stars’ agency. Although this has been an important focus throughout the study, this chapter analyses in detail how Connery tried to extend his economic and creative control role by becoming an executive producer and by founding a production company, Fountainbridge Films, in 1992. The structure and production strategy of Fountainbridge is examined in detail, as are the three films for which Connery was both producer and star: Just Cause (1995), Entrapment (1999) and Finding Forrester (2000). The chapter argues that they represent three ways in which Connery had come to conceive his star persona: the sagacious legal professor campaigning for justice; the still sexy action star able to execute a daring robbery; and the reclusive author at odds with the system yet reaching out to the new generation, respectively. Finding Forrester may be thought to be an allegory of the British star who never fitted into the Hollywood system and yet Connery’s next and what turned out to be his final feature film, The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (2003), was an attempt to instigate a new franchise, showing that Connery never lost his desire to be a major star. The chapter also analyses in detail Connery’s compelling portrait of an ageing lover in the John le Carré adaptation The Russia House (1991) and his wily dissident John Patrick Mason, an anti-Bond figure, in The Rock (1996).

in Sean Connery
Innovating in the reference genre (and turning against episcopacy?)
Amy G. Tan

Chapter 9 turns to Thesaurus Biblicus, a tripartite Bible reference work Bernard composed during the 1630s and which was rejected by a Laudian licenser on the grounds that it might enable laypeople to act as preachers. I show that each of Thesaurus’s sections took a different approach toward equipping users – including lay users – to interpret the Bible. Using the genre of a reference work from which users could draw their own conclusions, Bernard avoided explicitly supporting certain controversial positions, yet nevertheless provided audiences with information intended (not exclusively, but clearly) to equip a sort of theologically reformed, puritanically inflected, lay household preaching. Although radical in some senses, this was, in fact, within the realm of current practice for some godly households: and it suggested a potential way forward for godly religion in a period when certain doctrines and styles of ministry were out of favour with ecclesiastical leadership. The chapter concludes by returning to the question of conformity, showing that there is a reasonable case to be made that Bernard authored an anonymous 1641 anti-episcopal pamphlet – especially curious as this would seem to run counter to his longstanding commitment to operating within the national church. I suggest that, if he was the author, we can understand this shift as fitting within a different sort of conformity: one conforming to certain Parliamentary initiatives.

in The pastor in print
One experience inspiring generically divergent publications
Amy G. Tan

The third section of the book addresses innovation in genre and content of publications. It begins with an examination in Chapter 7 of a single situation that incited two generically divergent publications. Just as Bernard was closing his period of anti-Catholic writing, he attended the 1626 Taunton summer assizes and spent time with Edward Bull, a man charged with, and subsequently executed for, witchcraft. This experience would shape two of Bernard’s best-known works: an allegory, The Isle of Man, and a manual about witchcraft trials, A Guide to Grand-Iury Men. Scholars have mentioned these works with some regularity, but typically only within studies discussing allegory (Isle) or witchcraft and demonology (Guide); and their origin in Bernard’s experience at the trial has received limited attention. This chapter takes a different approach, first focusing on the situation at the assizes its contexts, and then turning to consider how and why Bernard chose to produce these two rather unusual publications, innovating with both genre and content in order to make various messages clear. This allows us to observe something of the entanglement and mutual influences between Bernard’s personal pastoral ministry and his publications. Moreover, because it places the ‘devotional’ Isle alongside the religio-socio-judicial Guide, it allows us to identify critical linkages, not previously recognised, between two publications that on the surface appear quite distinct.

in The pastor in print
Amy G. Tan

Chapter 1 considers how devotional activities were understood in the early modern period and how meditative thought appeared in a range of early modern publications. It takes the position that devotional practices and publications were inherently interconnected with politics, social concerns, controversy, theology, vocation, and more. To illustrate this principle, the chapter gives specific attention to meditation, one of the most individual and interior of devotional practices. Drawing on descriptions of meditation, as well as meditative writings across multiple genres by a number of authors including Richard Bernard, this chapter offers a new way to characterise meditation – a practice that scholars have found difficulty in defining – by identifying its key characteristic as the making of mental links between the spiritual and the natural worlds. This underscores the utility of considering together all of a pastor-author’s works, across genres and topics, and it establishes the principle of avoiding false separation between ‘devotional’ and ‘non-devotional’ literature as a foundational aspect of analysis throughout the rest of the book.

in The pastor in print
Abstract only
Promiscuity, gender and sexuality
Sophie Vasset

‘Waters of desire: promiscuity, gender and sexuality’ shows how spa towns were a favourite setting for narratives of transgression. Watering places were an imaginary space opening up possibilities of otherness in self-fashioning as much as in relationships. The chapter centres on bodily behaviours, and cultural constructions of the body. It starts with a section on ‘Nudity’, from the desirable neoclassical nudity of bathing women celebrated in the lyrical poetry of miscellanies to the farcical nakedness of men trapped on the beach with no clothes. The unusual proximity of bodies, the ‘dishabilles’ or ‘riding dress’ of women staged in songs and satire, created a suitable setting for the marriage market and adultery, as argued in the following section. A spa visit, in comedies and novels, triggered many possibilities of dangerous meetings and secret relationships. At the same time, women were represented with some degree of agency in such plots – many women would go to a spa independently of their husbands and their stories permeated many a narrative that used spas as a setting. Spa comedies revolved around the idea that the multiple public spaces of spa towns fostered performance in all manners of relationships, and mocked such theatricality of manners in their excessive characters. The last section, ‘Gender roles and gender fluidity’, offers to explore these excessive performative behaviours and the gender-bending possibilities they opened up.

in Murky waters
The colour of monochrome, and Thomas Dalziel’s The May Queen
Bethan Stevens

This chapter is all about colour. It begins with a brief overview of Dalziel’s work in commercial colour printing, exploring how the family’s willingness to experiment with new techniques and approaches – constantly seeking artistic and commercial success – extended into this field. The chapter then moves on to consider in more detail the chromatic effects of monochrome engraving and proofing, and the way black-and-white illustration both has colour and mourns its loss. ‘All the colour has been cut out of this’, John Tenniel complained in his corrections to one monochrome proof. Wood engraving in the Victorian period manipulated tone in a way rarely seen before or since, and corrections to proofs frequently discuss effects of ‘colour’. In the second half of this chapter, Thomas Dalziel’s stunning unpublished manuscript of Tennyson’s The May Queen (1855) is presented and interpreted. It is an ambitious work in colour, but one that was totally unsuitable for commercial publication. It illustrates Tennyson’s poem through subtle changes in a monochrome-like palette, as the ink Thomas uses shifts between various shades that all approach black: from the deepest browns and reds, to stark black, to deep greys and navy blue. Through these shifts, Thomas Dalziel presents a new reading of Tennyson’s popular ballad, and makes a powerful statement about the chromatic aesthetic wood engravers learnt from their work. He offers an attached but ambivalent response to the confines of commercial image-making, which in the Dalziels’ case involved a focus on the black and white.

in The wood engravers’ self-portrait
Apprenticeship, education and employment
Bethan Stevens

This chapter explores employment and education in the wood-engraving factory, the erosion of the apprenticeship system and Dickens’s Barnaby Rudge. The Dalziel Archive provides evidence about the employees used by the firm, deciphered and presented here. We consider three workers: Francis Fricker and James Clark were full-time, long-term employees who started out as teenage apprentices, whereas John Bowcher turned much later to wood engraving, as a second career. Bowcher struggled to launch his own small firm, alongside precarious freelance jobs for Dalziel. His pencilled signature on the Dalziel engraving of William Bell Scott’s illustration of Keats’s ‘Ode to a Nightingale’ offers a fascinating claim of authorship in the context of a poem that itself celebrates doubled artistry. Revealing annotations on some proofs document Thomas Dalziel’s role as an educator of junior engravers, developing future skills in the firm’s workforce. Framing this history of art labour are the illustrations to Dickens’s historical novel Barnaby Rudge (1841), a novel that features a memorable and wicked apprentice, Simon Tappertit. Interestingly, this novel was illustrated twice by Dalziel, at different moments in the firm’s history. George and Edward Dalziel engraved illustrations after Phiz (Hablot K. Browne) for the first edition in 1841, when they were themselves young freelancers working under another engraver, Ebenezer Landells. The Dalziel firm then produced a new visualisation under their own signature in 1874. The chapter compares these illustrated editions, reading them alongside the changing historical conditions for engraver-apprentices between the 1840s and 1870s.

in The wood engravers’ self-portrait
An ethical response from South Africa informed by vulnerability and justice
Manitza Kotzé

Two articles in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights are of particular relevance to the issue of assisted reproductive technology in the global south, and in South Africa especially. Article 8 mentions respect for human vulnerability, while article 10 calls for equality, justice and equity. In this chapter, these two articles will be brought into conversation with the issue of assisted reproductive technologies in the global south, taking the South African context as the point of departure. The articles underscore the necessity for vulnerable groups and individuals to be protected in the application and advancement of scientific knowledge, medical practice and associated technologies, while also emphasising that all human beings should be treated in a just and equitable manner. In the context of South Africa, where the majority of the population are unable to access and afford most forms of assisted reproductive technology, the issues of biopower and misuse of power come particularly to the fore. Especially in forms of biotechnology where donor material is utilised, donors often come from vulnerable groups, while those that benefit are in positions of privilege, where they can both access and afford these treatments. This also raises the issue of intersectionality in the ethical discussion on assisted reproductive technologies in the South African context.

in Birth controlled