In Chapter 2, I look at early Soviet Marxism as an epistemological framework that produced a productivist understanding of bodies and sexual attraction. Communist figures in socialism were neither individual territories of freedom, nor subjectivities who fought against the conformism of an established ideology. Marxist films present a productivist body that is not individualistic, but the unfinished product of a dialectical process to achieve communism. To begin the process of analyzing the erasure of eastern European Marxism, I explore the gradual disappearance of the productivist Soviet body during “the thaw,” with a focus on socialist Romania. While, in the 1950s, Romanian socialism followed a Soviet politics of sexuality, I show that during the 1960s Romanian socialism reflected a western European trend to naturalize conservative norms about marriage and abortion. I analyze the 1964 Romanian film The District of Gaiety and argue that conservative tropes of sexuality altered the project of Marxist sexuality
Chapter 8 displaces the narrative that Soviet Marxism is relevant only to those parts of the world that have lived behind the so-called Iron Curtain. I develop the term “queer communism” by discussing the work of Susan Stryker, Jacques Rancière and postsocialist theorists. Because an anti-communist tradition in the United States has fundamentally shaped a right-wing rhetoric with roots in the Cold War, part of that rhetoric is a refusal not only of labor resistance, but also of gender anti-normativity. In drawing on a Cold War sci-fi – Jack Arnold’s It Came from Outer Space and Sean Baker’s Tangerine – I argue that queer liberalism in the USA has elided this alliance between trans and working-class politics. A Marxist dialectical method illuminates the trajectories of bodies socialized in eastern Europe, who have later become migrants under global capitalism.
In Chapter 7, I suggest that a Marxist conception of the unconscious can offer new insights into racial dynamics about class exploitation. I ask: How did the Cold War shape the concept of the unconscious, so that Marxist ideology and New Left psychoanalytic theory were kept at odds? I insert Soviet Marxism into conversations regarding the epistemology of psychoanalysis. I put Jean Laplanche’s psychoanalytic theory in dialogue not only with queer theory but also with a socialist film made in the Soviet Union about Romanian Roma, The Fiddlers.
COVID-19 has reinstated the sovereign enclosures of corpse management that mothers of the disappeared had so successfully challenged in the past decade. To explore how moral duties toward the dead are being renegotiated due to COVID-19, this article puts forward the notion of biorecuperation, understood as an individualised form of forensic care for the dead made possible by the recovery of biological material. Public health imperatives that forbid direct contact with corpses due to the pandemic, interrupt the logics of biorecuperation. Our analysis is based on ten years of experience working with families of the disappeared in Mexico, ethnographic research within Mexico’s forensic science system and online interviews conducted with medics and forensic scientists working at the forefront of Mexico City’s pandemic. In the face of increasing risks of viral contagion and death, this article analyses old and new techniques designed to bypass the prohibitions imposed by the state and its monopoly over corpse management and identification.
The handling of the deceased during the COVID-19 pandemic, a case study in France and Switzerland
Gaëlle Clavandier, Marc-Antoine Berthod, Philippe Charrier, Martin Julier-Costes, and Veronica Pagnamenta
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about an unprecedented global crisis. To limit the spread of the virus and the associated excess mortality, states and governing bodies have produced a series of regulations and recommendations from a health perspective. The funerary aspects of these directives have reconfigured not only the ways in which the process of dying can be accompanied, but also the management of dead bodies, impacting on the dying, their relatives and professionals in the sector. Since March 2020, the entire process of separation and farewell has been affected, giving rise to public debates about funeral restrictions and the implications for mourning. We carried out a study in France and Switzerland to measure the effects of this crisis, and in particular to explore whether it has involved a shift from a funerary approach to a strictly mortuary one. Have the practices that would normally be observed in non-pandemic times been irrevocably altered? Does this extend to all deaths? Has there been a switch to an exclusively technical handling? Are burial practices still respected? The results of the present study pertain to the ‘first wave’ of spring 2020 and focus on the practices of professionals working in the funeral sector.
Liliana Sanjurjo, Desirée Azevedo, and Larissa Nadai
This article analyses the management of bodies in Brazil within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Its objective is to examine how the confluence of underreporting, inequality and alterations in the forms of classifying and managing bodies has produced a political practice that aims at the mass infection of the living and the quick disposal of the dead. We first present the factors involved in the process of underreporting of the disease and its effects on state registration and regulation of bodies. Our analysis then turns to the cemetery to problematise the dynamics through which inequality and racism are re-actualised and become central aspects of the management of the pandemic in Brazil. We will focus not only on the policies of managing bodies adopted during the pandemic but also on those associated with other historical periods, examining continuities and ruptures, as well as their relationship to long-term processes.
Presumed black immunity to yellow fever and the racial politics of burial labour in 1855 Portsmouth and Norfolk, Virginia
Michael D. Thompson
Epidemic disease regularly tore through nineteenth-century American cities, triggering public health crises and economic upheaval. These epidemic panics also provoked new racialised labour regimes, affecting the lives of innumerable working people. During yellow fever outbreaks, white authorities and employers preferred workers of colour over ‘unacclimated’ white immigrants, reflecting a common but mistaken belief in black invulnerability. This article chronicles enslaved burial labourers in antebellum Virginia, who leveraged this notion to seize various privileges – and nearly freedom. These episodes demonstrate that black labour, though not always black suffering or lives, mattered immensely to white officials managing these urban crises. Black workers were not mere tools for protecting white wealth and health, however, as they often risked torment and death to capitalise on employers’ desperation for their essential labour. This history exposes racial and socioeconomic divergence between those able to shelter or flee from infection, and those compelled to remain exposed and exploitable.