The Testimony of Late Seventeenth-Century Library Auction
In this article on book circulation, I survey twelve English library auction
catalogues from the period 1676–97, in order to show how interest in the
writings of the Amsterdam rabbi Menasseh ben Israel (1604–57) continued
after his death. I do this by identifying the circulation of his works in
Puritan personal libraries. I focus particularly on the library auction
catalogues of leading Puritans, notably Lazarus Seaman, Thomas Manton, Stephen
Charnock and John Owen. I also show that of all Menasseh’s books,
De resurrectione mortuorum libri III was the one most
frequently owned by Puritan divines. This article demonstrates how books helped
to catalyse the boundary-crossing nature of the Jewish–Christian
encounter in seventeenth-century England.
This article reconsiders the value of ‘shorter’ chronicles written
in fourteenth-century England through a case study of the most popular of these,
the Cronica bona et compendiosa, which survives in more
manuscripts than most of the chronicles frequently used in scholarship. It
examines the text’s authorship and narrative to show what it can reveal
about history writing and ideas of the past, especially as they relate to
medieval readers. It demonstrates the text’s influence on contemporary
writers by showing how it was slightly adapted by the important chronicler Henry
Knighton, which use has so far gone unnoticed. This article also includes an
appendix listing twenty-three ‘shorter’ histories and their
manuscripts, nearly all of which have not hitherto been identified.
The letter collections of Greco-Roman antiquity dwarf in total size all of
ancient drama or epic combined, but they have received far less attention than
(say) the plays of Euripides or the epics of Homer or Virgil. Although
classicists have long realised the crucial importance of the order and
arrangement of poems into ‘poetry books’ for the reading and
reception both of individual poems and the collection as a whole, the importance
of order and arrangement in collections of letters and the consequences for
their interpretation have long been neglected. This piece explores some of the
most important Greek letter collections, such as the Letters attributed to
Plato, and examines some of the key problems in studying and editing collections
of such ancient letters.
An Unpublished Manuscript Illuminated by the Master of the Haarlem
James H. Marrow
This paper analyses an unpublished Dutch-language Book of Hours in the John
Rylands Library, focusing on unusual core texts the manuscript contains and
distinctive features of its cycle of illumination. The miniatures and the richly
painted decoration of the manuscript can be attributed to the Master of the
Haarlem Bible and dated c.1450–75. The inserted
full-page miniatures include iconographically noteworthy examples, and the
placement of some in the volume is anomalous, suggesting that they may not have
been planned when the volume was written. Our analyses of distinctive texts and
images of the manuscript lead us to offer suggestions about the religious status
or affiliations of its patron and to propose possible monastic settings in which
it might have been used. We discuss the disparate character of its textual and
illustrative components in relation to current reappraisals of the organisation
of manuscript production in the Northern Netherlands.
This article proposes that Manchester, John Rylands Library, Latin MS 165 was an
‘accessory text’ produced and gifted within the Tudor court and
passed down by matrilineal transmission within the influential Fortescue family.
It proposes that from the text’s conception, the book of devotions
participated in various projects of self-definition, including Henry
VII’s campaign for the canonisation of his Lancastrian ancestor, Henry
VI. By analysing visual and textual evidence, it posits that later female owners
imitated the use of marginal spaces by the book’s original scribe and
illuminator. Finally, it traces the book’s ownership back from its
acquisition by the John Rylands Library to the viscounts Gage, in whose custody
the book underwent a transformation from potentially subversive tool of female
devotion to obscure historical artefact.
Henry Edward Manning (1808–92) was involved in some of the most pressing social issues of his time, from the defence of workers and trade unionism to finding a solution for the dock strike and the education of the poor. English Catholic social conscience, as a whole and with some singular exceptions, was somewhat slow in following the leadership of the cardinal in some of these matters. This article studies a barely known aspect of Manning’s social activity: his involvement in the British response to the Russian pogroms of 1881–82 and in other contemporary Jewish issues.
Looking for Typological Treasure with William Jones of Nayland and E. B. Pusey
This article compares the typological exegesis promoted by E. B. Pusey (1800–82) and his colleagues John Henry Newman and John Keble with that of their eighteenth-century Hutchinsonian predecessor William Jones of Nayland (1726–1800). Building on Peter Nockles’s argument that Jones’s emphasis on the figurative character of biblical language foreshadows the Tractarian application of the sacramental principle to exegesis, this article shows how this common approach differs from the more cautious one displayed by the High Church luminaries William Van Mildert and Herbert Marsh. At the same time, both Pusey’s criticism of the mainstream apologetics of his day and his more explicit application of the doctrine of the Incarnation to exegesis resulted in bolder interpretations and a greater emphasis on the necessity of figurative readings (of both the Bible and the natural world) than Jones generally proposed. A shared appreciation of the principle of reserve may explain both these differences and the Tractarian emphasis on a patristic, rather than a Hutchinsonian, inspiration for their approach.
The Gendered Politics of Publication of Mary Fletcher’s Auto/Biography
This article focuses on the representation of Methodist preacher Mary Bosanquet Fletcher (1739–1815) in her biography by the Revd Henry Moore. His omissions and commentary served to neutralise some of her more radical ideas and early feminism, which can be discovered by reading her manuscript journals, as well as the manuscript correspondence between Mary Tooth, keeper of Mary Fletcher’s papers, and Henry Moore. The product of archival research in the Methodist collections at the John Rylands Library in Manchester, this article owes a great debt to archivists Dr Peter Nockles and Dr Gareth Lloyd.
In 1869, Parliament disestablished the Church of Ireland, dissolving what Benjamin Disraeli called the ‘sacred union’ of church and state in Ireland. Disestablishment involved fundamental issues – the identity and purpose of the established church, the religious nature of the state, the morality of state appropriation of church property for secular uses, and the union of Ireland and Britain – and debate was carried on at a high intellectual level. With disestablishment, the Church of Ireland lost much of its property, but it recovered, now as an independent Episcopal church with a renewed mission. The idea of the United Kingdom as a semi-confessional Protestant state, however, was dealt a serious blow.
This article considers the sermons preached by royal chaplains at the court of James II and the organisation of the chapel royal by James as a Catholic organisation. In doing so, it addresses the question of where James’s assurance and certainty came from that he was ruling as God wished him to do. The evidence presented here is that James organised his Catholic chapel royal to be a conscious source of guidance and support. His chaplains reciprocated by addressing him as a Catholic king whose duty was to bring to heel a recalcitrant and stubborn people. His chaplains used historical precedent and theological argument to press on James his determination to bring his Protestant subjects to obedience. This is a study of the Catholic milieu of James’s court and of the theological impetus behind his rule.