Browse

Abstract only
Hester Barron

The language of citizenship pervaded education during the interwar period, as local and national officials adjusted to a period of mass democracy. This chapter examines the way that children were taught about citizenship and patriotism, whether through the messaging in history lessons, for example, or more incidental activities such as school trips. The British Empire in particular was central to the sense of the world that was imparted within the schoolroom, and imperial pride was bolstered by rituals such as the annual celebration of Empire Day or attendance at the 1924 British Empire Exhibition. The way in which the First World War was commemorated on Armistice Day is also explored, alongside classroom discussions about the League of Nations. The evidence shows that the teaching of concepts such as citizenship, patriotism and empire varied enormously, affected by the degree of enthusiasm among a school’s staff and the effectiveness of their teaching; individual children also responded in diverse ways. It is harder still to generalise about any long-term effect, although memoirs suggest that school lessons could sometimes make a lasting difference. But the chapter also argues that the dominant scholarly focus on patriotism and empire can be a distraction. Lessons in subjects such as history may not have made pupils more patriotic; but sometimes that was not their intention. Love of country, monarchy and empire or, indeed, the championing of the League of Nations and international cooperation, rarely dominated a child’s education and competed with more day-to-day concerns.

in The social world of the school
Abstract only
Edward J. Woell

The final chapter is distinctive by considering not only just one individual, the abbé Denis Chauchot, the curé of Is-sur-Tille [Côte-d’Or], but also the fallout of religious politics from 1789 to 1793 in the years that immediately followed. It introduces the real Chauchot with a fake story about him in a revolutionary newspaper. The editorial strategy behind the errant story aligns with the chapter’s overall point, namely that the abbé Chauchot’s writing illustrates a three-pronged strategy that he deployed for defending his community’s religious rights. First, he invoked sacred references to God and sacramental practice. Second, he articulated secular arguments upholding revolutionary ideals. And third, he wrote sentimental prose and poetry that seamlessly bound his religious and secular entreaties together. Understanding the strategy of Chauchot begins with a 1760s court case suggesting that this curé had a Jansenist past. By 1791, however, his Jansenism had been joined by another potent cultural force—sentimentalism, and both vectors led him to support the Civil Constitution and take the 1791 Oath. When local officials began encroaching on local religious rights starting in late 1792, Chauchot countered their move by employing written protest, often taking the form of lyrics to hymns. For defending his flock’s religious rights, Chauchot faced repeated incarceration even after dechristianization had subsided. Despite this, Chauchot maintained his role as the curé of Is-sur-Tille throughout the Revolution. Overall, the chapter illustrates still another way that religious politics wore away a community’s democratic character: by attacking a liberal and republican-minded curé.

in Confiscating the common good
Clara R. Jørgensen and Julie Allan

Inclusion has been a key concern for researchers exploring the impact of free schools in England since their introduction in 2010. However, discussions of inclusion have mostly centred on structural issues of social justice and equality, more specifically whether free schools are located in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, whether schools operate fair and inclusive admission policies, and whether parents and children of disadvantaged backgrounds are equally able to access the schools. Not much has been written about what actually happens at the schools in terms of more micro-level day-to-day practices and interactions. This chapter reports on a project carried out at a secondary free school in 2016–2018, using qualitative and ethnographic methods to examine the views and experiences of teachers, school staff, parents and children, particularly in relation to inclusion and children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND). With reference to social capital theory, the chapter discusses the extent to which the school was able to use its free school status and particular ‘freedoms’ to foster inclusive practice and strategies. The chapter critically considers the free school programme in relation to the inclusion of SEND students, but also explores the possibility that mainstream schools may draw on experiences developed within free schools to strengthen inclusive practices and strategies. The chapter furthermore outlines the main challenges experienced by staff in developing an inclusive school and reflects on some of the difficulties of fostering inclusion within an increasingly competitive and performance based educational system.

in Inside the English education lab
Ice cores and the temporalization of Earth system science
Erik Isberg

In oceanographer Wallace Broecker’s landmark article ‘Climatic Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming’, published in Science in 1975, ice played a crucial, yet somewhat opaque, role. By using data from the 1966 Camp Century ice core, Broecker made claims about future global warming. The ice core itself was not the heart of the inquiry for Broecker; rather it served as a frame of reference in the making of a different object of knowledge: the warming planet. Ice cores have increasingly become ‘planetary archives’ of interest to scientists beyond glaciology and they have ventured from a remote existence in the cryosphere into the models of Earth system scientists.

This chapter aims to situate ice core drilling within a broader history of the making of planetary-scale environmental knowledge. By tracing early applications of ice core data in scientific practices beyond glaciology, the work of the ice core can be located in a process of temporalization of the planetary environment. During the 1970s and 1980s, ice cores became crucial elements in the efforts to synchronize multiple paleoarchives into a coherent understanding of planetary dynamics. By conceptualizing ice cores as environing media, this chapter points to the multiple stages of mediation ice cores have undergone during the postwar era and their subsequent rise as a key technology to produce planetary-scale environmental knowledge.

in Ice humanities
Abstract only

This book presents Germaine Dulac as one of the few women pioneers of cinema and a committed feminist. It draws on a wealth of archival material – both films and documents – to study Dulac’s ‘behind the scenes’ work on filmmaking and her social/political activism in the field of cinema. The biographical and historical introduction contextualizes Germaine Dulac’s situation at the heart of the avant-garde. Three chapters organize her films and career around the three kinds of cinema that she especially promoted: ‘psychological’, ‘pure’, and ‘documentary.’ The conclusion contrasts Dulac’s contributions with those of Alice Guy Blaché, another early women film pioneer, highlighting their differing paths to recognition.

What do they really save?
Mark Carey, Jordan Barton, and Sam Flanzer

There is a growing effort to move beyond the documentation of ice loss and, instead, to pursue projects that protect and preserve glaciers. These direct-action strategies can be referred to as ‘glacier protection campaigns’, and they range from geoengineering activities that slow ice melting to laws and policies that protect cryo-landscapes. This chapter analyses five different glacier-saving campaigns: (1) insulating blankets on Switzerland’s Rhône Glacier (2) glacier protection at European ski resorts (3) building artificial glaciers and ice stupas in India (4) Argentina's glacier protection law (5) the granting of legal personhood status for two glaciers in India. The chapter emphasis, however, is not on technical aspects of the campaigns themselves, but rather focuses on analysing underlying narratives and agendas embedded in the media stories, news articles, lawsuits, policies, and reports about glacier protection campaigns. The chapter follows an ‘ice humanities’ approach by focusing on the representations of glacier icons and objects through these campaigns. It shows how news and media accounts about glacier-saving activities do much more than explain the glacier projects. Ultimately, the stories about glacier-saving campaigns promote certain uses of ice, advocate a small set of solutions to the climate crisis, and privilege specific actors and entities (while silencing others) who are granted authority over ice. Solutions to the climate crisis and ice loss are thus themselves transformative. They preserve ice and also alter landscapes, shift governance and environmental politics, prioritize technoscientific interventions, commodify environments, exacerbate social inequalities, and change meanings and values of nonhuman nature.

in Ice humanities
Abstract only
Lived history as method

Global Biographies provides a comprehensive and concrete analytical framework for the use of biography as a method in global history. Over several recent decades, biography has re-emerged as a legitimate and nuanced approach to history. Nevertheless, global history, long slanted towards structural processes and the macro-analytical perspective, has made limited use of biographies beyond the purpose of adding narrative spice to larger-scale analyses. By contrast, Global Biographies shows that biography as a method of historical writing is uniquely positioned to explore human experiences and agency in global processes. Biography offers a privileged means by which to explore the relationship between individuals being in the world and socio-historical changes on a global scale. Global Biographies unpacks the historiographical and methodological relationship between biographies and global history and in doing so presents three uniquely tailored approaches to global biography. These approaches direct attention to questions central to global history concerning time and periodization, exceptionality and the normal, and space and scale. Through a diverse and carefully curated collection of chapters, each approach is conscientiously probed and reflected upon. From Icelandic communists and Jewish medical students, via Zambian Third Worldism and Albanian nationalism, to the black/white Atlantic and Australian internationalists, this volume tests the potential and pitfalls of the approaches it launches. Global Biographies offers a thorough historiographical intervention, a new set of biographical approaches to global history and a broad and critically reflective set of case studies spanning the globe.

Katie Blood

This chapter, consisting of ethnographic fieldwork, explores a newly converted academy having replaced a former ‘failing’ school situated in a marginalised town in the Midlands. Through its ethnographic methodological approach, the study mobilises Bourdieu’s conceptual tools to examine the everyday lived experiences of the academy’s staff and its working-class students. While claims have been made that the academy programme is indeed ‘working miracles’ (Cameron, 2012) in regard to facilitating ‘successful’ outcomes in marginalised locales, findings from this academy identify that the relatively unchanged social milieu in which the academy is situated remains formative in the imagined futures of its students. Thus, when the academy and policy expectations come up against the localised material and economic realities, the transformative impact of the academy, while offering beneficial forms of capital, remains limited. The research therefore underscores the necessity that when questioning whether the academy agenda can and does act as a generative force in terms of social justice one must explore each academy individually through a unique contextual lens. The chapter continues by arguing that the more meritocratic discourses and authoritarian modes of governance found within the academies programme, including at this academy, can be said to have preceded much of the more explicitly authoritarian turn we are currently witnessing in broader politics.

in Inside the English education lab
Edward J. Woell

Opening the first chapter are two petitions from the small town of Lescar [Pyrénées Atlantiques], which found itself in the same situation as Saint-Gaudens in March of 1790. The two petitions are meant to address an objection often raised by critics of microhistory, namely that of representative evidence. Bearing in mind this concern, the chapter’s purpose is to consider the book’s underlying elements, including key concepts like “small town” and “religious politics,” as well as the sources on which the book is based and the methodology that steers their use. As for defining what the French have called a small town, the chapter draws on the work of Bernard Lepetit, Ted Margadant, and Jacques Dupâquier, but above all the sociologist Christine Lamarre, who has understood such communities as constitutive of a distinct and persistent echelon within France’s demographic structure. Although discussing five critical decisions made about religious politics by the National Assembly in 1789 and 1790, the chapter’s explanation of this politics at the small-town level primarily focuses on the structures and individuals among which power and policy were locally contested—municipal, district, and cantonal administrations, in addition to key officials, religious stakeholders, and other forces that shaped such politics. Also discussed are the book’s microhistorical methodology and its use of sources. Why the five towns discussed in subsequent chapters were chosen is explained, along with the assets and liabilities of such an approach.

in Confiscating the common good
Abstract only
The extension of jurisdiction in the Anthropocene north
Bruce Erickson, Liam Kennedy-Slaney, and James Wilt

Jurisdiction in the Arctic is always connected to ice in its material and imaginary forms. In Canada, attempts to assert jurisdiction and sovereignty in the north are also part of the colonial project. As we face a warming Arctic, itself leading to different ice conditions and experiences, it is vital to remember that the colonial lens has had a significant impact on our interactions and understanding of ice. This chapter contends that, in recent years, the concern about the future of Arctic ice (and the creatures that live on it) has served the purpose of asserting colonial jurisdiction. In this practice, environmental degradation, easily recognizable in the changing ice of the Arctic, is drafted as a rationale for increasing state jurisdiction, often in opposition to indigenous ways of life. By examining the scientific legacy of the Arctic Pilot Project and the rise of polar bear deterrence programmes, this chapter will argue that contemporary understandings of the Anthropocene have been drafted by the Canadian state to not only protect a melting environment, but also to assert state jurisdiction and ensure the continuity of the settler state.

in Ice humanities