Configurations of con/destructive affective activism in women’s organising
Peace Kiguwa

June Jordan’s simultaneously poignant lament and re-assertion of asserting a (gendered) self into existence in Poem about my Rights is a reminder of affect’s ideological and political capacity. This function of affect to both interrupt and disrupt hegemonies of inequalities calls attention to its constructive deployment in #MeToo within the South African context. And yet, how particular affective attachments and identifications are governed from within – in ways that not only reproduce heteronormative hegemonies, but in effect, let power off the hook – cannot be ignored. The chapter is concerned with these con(de)structive roles in the deployment of certain affect-positions that are selectively attached to particular bodies within the South African context. For example, how homophobic fury as well as embodied (gendered) pain becomes functional in sustaining passionate attachments and divisions in the fight against gender-based violence. Negation of trans, lesbian and gay experiences of gender violence from within some spaces of the #MeToo movement within this context thus deploys affective technologies of governance that do the work of erasure through indictment. The chapter makes these arguments of the con(de)structive capacity of affective activism with the use of case examples from South Africa. These modes of affective technologies must be grappled with if we are to fully engage the broader governmental logics of gendered violence in society.

in Intimacy and injury
Reforming endowments
H. S. Jones

Corruption is fundamentally about the blurring of the distinction between public life and private interests. In Victorian Britain the reform of endowed institutions was a key arena for the renegotiation of these boundaries, and it was one that sharply divided Liberals from Conservatives. A series of controversies pitted the Liberals’ reforming programme against the Conservative defence of endowments. These included the opening up of Oxford and Cambridge to non-Anglicans, the disendowment of the Irish church, the secularisation of the governing bodies of endowed schools under the terms of the Endowed Schools Act of 1869 and the abortive attempt in the 1880s to assert public control over the endowments of the City livery companies. This chapter elucidates the distinctive position developed by Gladstonian Liberals on the question of endowments. It focuses in particular on the stance taken by a number of Gladstonians and their role in endowment controversies, notably through their work on a sequence of royal commissions – among them key figures such as Lord Lyttelton, James Bryce, Henry Roby and Joshua Fitch. In doing so, the chapter deepens our understanding of some of the forgotten dimensions of institutional reform in Victorian Britain, and the distinctive contribution of Gladstonian Liberalism to shaping modern notions of public service and corruption.

in The many lives of corruption
Puritans, conformity and the challenge of Laudianism
Anthony Milton

This chapter takes issue with the idea that Laudianism posed an existential threat to puritanism, and it argues that, despite plentiful evidence about the prosecution of puritan ministers and lay people, of emigration and of exile, there remains scope to rethink the religious issues and divisions of the period. This is achieved by reflecting on debates amongst puritans during the 1640s, as Presbyterians and Independents traded blows over how their rivals had gone too far in accommodating and conforming themselves to, Laudian reforms, and over who had the best credentials as anti-Laudians. These debates, which constitute contests for legitimacy, and which are evident in contemporary printed exchanges, are valuable for shining light upon evidence regarding those puritans who proved willing to contemplate partial conformity with undesirable reforms and policies in the decades before the civil wars. Such conformity involved an awkward and neglected process, and its recovery is important for addressing some of the more problematic aspects of the Laudian experience for England’s godly, as well as for recovering overlooked possibilities that once existed for rapprochement between puritans and the Caroline regime, and for an alternative policy trajectory during the personal rule.

in Insolent proceedings
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The high seas comprise all parts of the sea that are not included in the exclusive economic zone, in the territorial sea or in the internal waters of a State, or in the archipelagic waters of an archipelagic State. After considering the definition and legal status of the high seas, the chapter analyses the concept of the freedom of the high seas, noting the controversies arising in this regard given the non-exhaustive list of examples provided in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. It then provides a detailed assessment of jurisdiction on the high seas, explaining that whilst the legal regime of the high seas has traditionally been characterised by the dominance of the principles of free use and the exclusivity of flag State jurisdiction, in practice the picture is very different. It considers this issue with respect to piracy and other threats to the safety of navigation, unauthorised broadcasting, slavery, people and drug trafficking, ships of uncertain nationality and stateless ships. It concludes with a section addressing the right of hot pursuit and constructive presence.

in The law of the sea
Paromita Chakravarti and Jhelum Roy

Current discussions on sexual harassment have been, because of its extent, impact and celebrity involvement, overdetermined by the #MeToo phenomenon. In India, ‘the List’ has defined the terms of recent feminist debates on harassment in academia. This has deflected our gaze from developments in Indian higher education campuses which anticipated issues raised by the List. This chapter traces this pre-history by exploring the shifting discourse on sexual harassment within student politics in India. Using the case study of the 2014 Hokkolorob (let there be clamour) students’ movement in Jadavpur University, Kolkata, which started in response to a harassment incident, the chapter explores the discursive and ideological changes in the framing of sexual harassment and the engagement with gender and sexuality issues within campus politics. It locates these shifts within a larger context of changing student demographics, privatisation of education which coexists with increasing state intervention in public universities, funding cuts and other factors. While focussing on Hokkolorob, other harassment cases will also be analysed to examine the discussions they have generated on the need for a feminist understanding of sexism and abuse in interpersonal, professional even political relationships and their intersections with caste and class dynamics within campuses responding to the contradictory pulls of neoliberalism and democratisation. Understanding these issues can help to better locate the #MeToo moment in Indian academia and see it not just as a List-inspired crisis but a manifestation of larger changes.

in Intimacy and injury
The transmission of civil war materials, 1642–9
Karen Britland

In late November 1645, a lame soldier was stopped and searched on his way out of Cardiff by the city's Parliamentarian governor. His wooden leg was unscrewed and was found to contain 18 ‘letters of consequence’, including one from Prince Maurice to Prince Charles and another from Secretary Nicholas to General Goring. The letters were sent up to the Commons: the lame soldier’s fate is not recorded. This chapter explores the clandestine transportation of letters by royalists during the English Revolution (in hatbands, gloves, hose, hollow canes, shoes and even in the belly). It investigates how poor men and women’s identities were often of less interest to newsbook writers than the messages they carried, and looks at the ways in which messengers hazarded their lives and bodies for the transmission of texts. Asking at what point information becomes of greater value than an individual human life, this chapter weighs up the ways in which bodies and texts became intertwined during the English Revolution.

in Insolent proceedings
Sean Kelsey

This essay revisits the issue of ‘indemnity’ for behaviour undertaken on behalf of the parliamentarian cause during the civil wars, not least by members of the army. This is an issue that has generated historiographical debate, in terms of whether or not contemporary debates over the issue serve to reveal parliamentarian ‘tyranny’, and in terms of how to understand the ‘rise of the New Model Army’ as a political force in the late 1640s. This essay seeks to draw connections between two different ways of analysing ‘indemnity’, as a practical political issue and as something that raised theoretical and constitutional questions, and builds upon scholarship regarding the need to set soldiers’ concerns within the context of questions about legality, justice, necessity and tyranny. The aim is to stress the importance of placing ‘indemnity’ at the heart of the process by which contemporaries thought about the business of political settlement with the king, of the possibility of bringing him to justice, and of the struggle for the post-war constitution, and to demonstrate that soldiers’ demands regarding indemnity are key to understanding the ideological radicalisation of the army.

in Insolent proceedings
Rethinking public politics in the English Revolution
Editors: Peter Lake and Jason Peacey

These interdisciplinary essays explore new directions in the history of the English Revolution. They are designed to honour Ann Hughes, whose work has transformed scholarship on the mid-seventeenth century, and they are driven by the idea that historians have focused more upon the causes of the revolution than upon its course and consequences. In developing various strands of Hughes’ work, contributors address the transformative effects of political and religious upheaval during the 1640s and 1650s, and revise our understanding of ‘public politics’, in terms of the practices, debates, and communicative strategies associated with the ‘print revolution’, with polemic, and with the mobilisation of opinion. Crucially, these practices and debates are shown to have taken place in the public domain, in front of, but also with the involvement of, various overlapping and intersecting publics, right across the country. Examining these phenomena provides fresh perspectives on political and religious radicalism, from canonical authors to sectarian activists, as well as on relations between ‘centre’ and ‘locality’, and on connections between ideological endeavour and everyday politics. In bridging the divide between ‘elite’ and ‘popular’ politics, moreover, the essays also develop new approaches to participation, by soldiers and members of the parliamentarian army, by ordinary Londoners, and by provincial parishioners. Critically, they also analyse the involvement, agency, and treatment of women, from all walks of life, and in both activism and debate. Collectively, the essays rethink both the dynamic and the consequences of the revolutionary decades.

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After explaining that internal waters are those marine areas on the landward side of the baseline and that States have sovereignty over such areas, this chapter considers particular aspects of that sovereignty in detail. The first is the right of access for foreign vessels to ports and other internal waters. The second is the coastal State’s jurisdiction, both legislative and enforcement, over foreign vessels in its internal waters under customary international law, together with the specialised jurisdiction over foreign vessels in its ports conferred by some treaties.

in The law of the sea

This chapter begins by emphasising that scientific research is vital if the oceans are to be wisely used and managed. The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea introduces a detailed regime for the conduct of marine scientific research. After considering the meaning of ‘marine scientific research’, a term frequently used in the Convention but nowhere defined, the chapter analyses the relevant provisions of the Convention. It explains how the requirement of prior consent for research carried out in a coastal State’s maritime zones operates. The chapter continues by discussing the general principles for the conduct of marine scientific research laid down by the Convention; its provisions encouraging research, particularly through international co-operation (given effect to through bodies such as the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission): and its regulation, albeit rather limited, of the legal status of research installations and equipment. The chapter argues that the Convention’s apparent paradigm for the conduct of marine scientific research, namely by a dedicated research vessel, has become dated as research is increasingly carried out by an array of unmanned fixed and floating devices and by remote sensing from satellites in outer space. The chapter ends by considering other regimes that govern the conduct of specific types of research, such as those of the International Whaling Commission and the Antarctic Treaty System.

in The law of the sea