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Martial identities and the subject of conquest in Derricke’s Image of Irelande
Maryclaire Moroney

Whether captain, kern or knight, martial identities in Elizabethan England and Ireland are as multiple, class-inflected, and contested as the military contexts through which they are experienced and expressed. This chapter argues that John Derricke’s (mis)representations of Gaelic Irish forces and their English others is critical to our understanding of the work’s political and polemical concerns. The woodcuts, in particular, have long been mined for their accurate depiction of weaponry and dress, but the extent to which the work as a whole seeks to obscure how far the Irish kerne and his English counterpart were indistinguishable comrades in arms has gone unremarked.

in John Derricke’s The Image of Irelande: with a Discoverie of Woodkarne
Discovering the formal and figurative texture of Derricke’s Image of Irelande
Matthew Woodcock

John Derricke’s Image of Irelande is regularly mined by historians and critics interested in its ethnographic observations, propagandistic pro-Sidney agenda and the informative detail of its woodcut illustrations. Little has been written, however, about the formal, stylistic and rhetorical aspects of the text itself, and of the confection of verse modes Derricke brings together. This chapter addresses this situation by examining Derricke’s employment of an elaborate vatic compositional fiction, multiple metrical forms and narratorial standpoints, and a distinct set of rhetorical devices (in particular analogy and antithesis). It poses questions about Derricke’s fundamental decision to anatomise his subject using poetry rather than prose, and about the place of allegory or figura in the text, and it considers some of the different generic models he may have had in mind when exploring the role and interplay of words, images and action in both the maintenance and representation of order in Tudor Ireland.

in John Derricke’s The Image of Irelande: with a Discoverie of Woodkarne
Stuart Kinsella

How can the maker and deviser of The Image of Irelande, containing six designs which are described as ‘probably the finest woodcuts made in a sixteenth-century English book’ be so little known? Where did this artistry come from and where could one hone such woodcutting skills? What was the influence of the publisher, John Day, England’s ‘most important publisher of illustrated books in the second half of the sixteenth century’, and how did the artist(s) become part of the entourage of Sir Henry Sidney coming to Ireland and recording the events of his lord deputyship during the mid-1570s? This chapter addresses these questions to argue for Derricke’s connection to the creation of the woodcuts.

in John Derricke’s The Image of Irelande: with a Discoverie of Woodkarne
James Lyttleton

The Image of Irelande, with a Discoverie of Woodkarne was published by John Derricke in 1581, following his time in Ireland in the employ of Sir Henry Sidney, the then lord deputy of Ireland. The book defends Sidney’s record and details the military victories he achieved over the native Irish. Included in the publication were twelve double-page woodcuts which Derricke stated were ‘Made and devised by him’. These depict various scenes of life in late Tudor Ireland, some of which Derricke may have witnessed himself. Two of these illustrate Sidney in Dublin, one a scene in which the lord deputy emerges through the main gate of Dublin Castle in a procession of horse-mounted troops. Notwithstanding certain licence on Derricke’s part, this image of Dublin Castle and its environs still provides a valuable commentary on the nature of the built environment in late sixteenth-century Dublin, the nature of which is only partially understood from documentary sources and archaeological remains. This chapter discusses the value of Derricke’s Image for archaeologists and architectural historians in reconstructing certain aspects of architecture in late Tudor Dublin.

in John Derricke’s The Image of Irelande: with a Discoverie of Woodkarne
Print culture, multimodality, and visual design in Derricke’s Image of Irelande
Andie Silva

One of the most detailed visual accounts of Irish customs and culture, the twelve illustrations in The Image of Ireland (1581) represent an impressive achievement in visual design and textual navigation. Part diagram, part graphic novel, each image features small letters connecting its actions to the narrative poem below. A look at other printed illustrations from the period (particularly those produced by Dutch woodcutters) demonstrates that John Derricke’s work carefully responded to contemporary themes and popular visual protocols. Further, the twelve illustrations offered a unique combination of form, design, and functionality not unlike modern hypertexts. Taking into consideration the early print marketplace in general and the demands from Day’s workroom in particular, this chapter suggests that The Image of Ireland’s illustrations were designed to be printed and circulated separately from Derricke’s poem. Derricke’s illustrations can be understood within the context of increasingly multimodal and dynamic reading practices among middle-class readers and are evidence of Day’s incredibly diverse market of book-buyers.

in John Derricke’s The Image of Irelande: with a Discoverie of Woodkarne
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Thomas Herron, Denna J. Iammarino, and Maryclaire Moroney

The Introduction to the book offers a historical and literary contextualization of the Image. The editors address the text’s rich historical connections; the little-known background of the author, John Derricke; the brief, but impactful reception of the work; the immediate and contemporary reaches of the Image. Lastly, the editors summarize the collection’s chapters, linking many of the ideas contained in the work. In general, the Introduction seeks to present information about the work, its characters, and its sordid history, ultimately arguing for its early modern significance to a variety of disciplines.

in John Derricke’s The Image of Irelande: with a Discoverie of Woodkarne
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Derricke, Dürer, and Foxe
Thomas Herron

This chapter explores the thematic connections between two English works rife with pro-Protestant Reformation-era politics and religious polemic, John Derricke's Image of Irelande, with a Discoverie of Woodkarne (1581) and John Foxe's Actes and Monuments (1560s) (also known as the Book of Martyrs). Both works were published by John Day in London. This chapter highlights Derricke’s apocalyptic rhetoric as well as similarities between his sophisticated visual program of woodcuts, Foxe’s title page, and the religious prints of Albrecht Dürer. Derricke's visual scheme of twelve woodcuts is bifurcated in style between the ‘damned’ Irish and the civilized English who conquered them. Sir Henry Sidney, Derricke's hero against the rebel Irish, is portrayed as more of a Christ-like judge than previously understood.

in John Derricke’s The Image of Irelande: with a Discoverie of Woodkarne
William O’Neil

John Derricke’s The Image of Irelande and Edmund Spenser’s Book Five of The Faerie Queene participate in an ongoing Tudor debate about how best to bring Ireland into a secure British polity. With a simplifying imagery, advocates for military conquest recommended ‘the sword’, and advocates for peaceful civil reform called for ‘the white wand’. This chapter reviews the ceremonial meanings of the white wand in Tudor England – in portraits, law, broadsheets, state papers, literature, and letters – and then shows how writers appropriated those meanings to advance their preferred policy in Ireland. In The Image John Derricke reverses the traditional associations with the white wand as he celebrates Sir Henry Sidney’s policies as the Lord Deputy. In Book Five Edmund Spenser follows this same rhetorical strategy to advocate for conquest of Ireland and only then civil reform.

in John Derricke’s The Image of Irelande: with a Discoverie of Woodkarne
Essays on text and context

This collection of sixteen essays, the first devoted to John Derricke’s work, offers new readings of, and new sources behind, The Image of Irelande: With a Discoverie of Woodkarne (1581), all to better explicate facets of this difficult and complex book. While prior scholarship on Derricke was largely confined to commentary on the illustrations, the essays in this volume encompass a broad range of approaches to the Image of Irelande in its entirety. Although on the face of it, The Image is blatantly pro-Sidney and anti-Irish propaganda, and has always been so received, the essays in this collection combine to suggest that Derricke’s book is in fact far more culturally and politically daring than has been assumed, with a highly sophisticated textual and visual presentation only now brought into focus. In addition to scrutinizing Derricke’s poetic and iconographic practices, the essays include insights from architecture and archaeology, print history and reading practices, studies of civic display and colonial ideologies. The collection, divided into five sections (Ideologies, Archaeologies, Print and publication, Influences, and Interpretations), establishes a basis on which to build future analyses of Derricke’s enigmatic book.

Sir Henry Sidney’s return to Dublin as depicted in Derricke’s Image of Irelande
Bríd McGrath

In addition to depicting Henry Sidney’s continued state building and reform of Irish political and administrative systems, this chapter argues that the Image also represents Sidney’s desire to promote the ceremonial aspects of the viceroy’s role, especially the newly established herald’s office. In such depictions, Derricke presents Sidney as the embodiment of vice-regal power in stark contrast to his depictions of the uncivilised Irish. And he does so especially in the various visualisations of the woodcuts, which illustrate civic imagery, civic iconography and state regalia. This chapter thoroughly analyses Plates 10 and 11 for these civic images, highlighting the role of heralds and aldermen in Sidney’s military and diplomatic achievements. Moreover, this chapter considers the distinction and overlap between English and Irish symbols in these plates.

in John Derricke’s The Image of Irelande: with a Discoverie of Woodkarne