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R. N. Swanson

The attempt to secure salvation generated a variety of social and other involvements. The doctrine of good works obviously imposed charitable obligations; the search for assurances of salvation also generated numerous attempts to secure prayers and limit the penalties of sin. Actions before death to secure salvation took several forms, besides making arrangements for commemorations after death. The participation in prayers and indulgences was the main focus, obtained in several forms. Indulgences, whatever the canonical interpretation, were generally taken to guarantee time off Purgatory in the future; and were widely distributed. The Hospital of St Anthony in London was a nation-wide collecting institution, which farmed out its sale of indulgences. Concurrent membership of several fraternities was relatively common; so too was the multiple purchase of indulgences.

in Catholic England
Abstract only
Janet Hamilton, Bernard Hamilton, and Yuri Stoyanov

This chapter contains a selection of translated and annotated texts on the rise of Christian dualism and its influence in the Byzantine world.

in Christian dualist heresies in the Byzantine world c. 650–c. 1450