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Abstract only
Jane Brooks

Having been courted by the profession and Government, all refugees were dismissed from their hospital positions following the fall of France. Fears of fifth columnists and a lack of understanding of the position of Jewish refugees led to increasingly draconian measures against them, culminating in the internment of some on the Isle of Man. The chapter therefore explores the experiences and feelings of the refugee nurses as they were designated as ‘enemy aliens’, dismissed and interned. After a few months, most refugees had been invited back into nursing and their responses to this are discussed. The chapter then charts their return to the profession and their growing sense of worth as they supported the Allied war effort against the Nazis. Significantly, their wartime nursing work is considered, as they re-evaluated their lives from victims of a murderous regime to valued members of a vital wartime profession. The chapter is, however, not complacent to the opportunism of the Government and nursing profession. As the war progressed, more and more British nurses volunteered for active service, leaving the nation’s hospitals depleted of critical staff. Nurses were needed to care for the sick and injured, especially during the Blitz; they were also crucial for air-raid work and fire-watching. The rapidity with which refugees shifted from vilified enemy alien to essential war-worker is explored. The chapter ends with the cessation of hostilities and the growing realisation of the destruction of European Jewry.

in Jewish refugees and the British nursing profession
Omran Shroufi

This chapter aims to delineate some borders of what the far right is – and isn’t – to consolidate existing critique of far right studies, focusing in particular on four potential misconceptions: (1) Far-right politics is not just party politics – often taken as pars pro toto, far-right parties are in fact only part of the picture. They operate alongside far-right writers, academics, think tanks, and non-parliamentary organisations; (2) There is no essential good/bad, far right/non-far right dichotomy – the contemporary far right is not necessarily the single biggest or a uniquely dangerous threat to democracy. Furthermore, the borders between the far right and non-far right are highly permeable; (3) The ‘us’ and ‘them’ of the far right are contingent – far-right forces may look to defend ‘the nation’, but some depict whole continents or ‘civilisations’ as ‘us’. Similarly, demonised ‘others’ may become sought-after constituents as the far right turns its gaze elsewhere; (4) The far right is not uniform – far right parties and organisations differ in significant ways, both within and across countries, with some more or less extreme, racist, (neo)liberal, or protectionist. In essence, this chapter argues that reflective and critical research on the far right needs to highlight what is unique and particular about the far right without overlooking similarities with other actors across the political spectrum. Furthermore, researchers should be attentive that history will not always repeat itself identically and that far-right actors may represent or work for seemingly ‘non-far right’ parties and organisations.

in The ethics of researching the far right
Critical reflections from studying the Lega (Nord)
George Newth

A pressing ethical issue for the study of the far and extreme right is the need to move away from paradigms and approaches which euphemise racist ideology. Key to addressing this is a greater engagement on behalf of political science scholars with racism as an analytical concept. In this chapter, I draw on my experience researching the Italian populist far right Lega (Nord) and reflect on why racism has been largely absent in political science analyses of this party. These reflections highlight three issues which have impeded a consistent engagement with racism as an analytical concept; namely, a lack of reflexivity in terms of positionality and whiteness in political science; an over-emphasis on ‘right-wing’ turns which overlook connections between regionalism and nationalism, and how these can inform far-right ideology; and, finally, a tendency to (over/mis) use populism and nativism as analytical concepts while decentring more stigmatising and precise terms, such as racism. Far from being specific to the study of the Lega, however, I argue that these issues are a symptom of a wider malaise represented by political science’s neglect of racism as an analytical tool. Accordingly, I offer three tentative, non-prescriptive guidelines to encourage reflexivity and a less euphemising way of referring to the far and extreme right. These aim to encourage dialogue between scholars and students alike, and the pursuit of anti-racist paradigms to examine far- and extreme-right actors.

in The ethics of researching the far right
Our ethical duty to the othered
Ryan Switzer

Our ethical duty to ‘do no harm’ to our informants in ethnographic work is complicated by the ever-shifting nature of violence in our societies. In this contribution, I reflect on the definitions of far-right violence thus offered by scholarship before arguing for a more expansive definition. This expansion can open more opportunities for understanding more pernicious forms of racial violence. But it also draws our attention to narratives of violent victimisation consistently offered by far-right activists. Understanding the spectrum of far-right violence means (1) prioritising the study of the violence in stigmatisation and reverse victimisation at the individual level while (2) handling these ideas with care in order to avoid uncritically reproducing them.

in The ethics of researching the far right
Graveyards as a Gothic chronotope in twenty-first-century fiction for young people
Debra Dudek

As the twentieth century ended and the twenty-first began, young adult (YA) television series such as Buffy the Vampire Slayer (1997–2003) and The Vampire Diaries (2009–17) featured graveyards as a space for temporary contemplation. With the publication of Neil Gaiman's The Graveyard Book (2008), the graveyard came to the foreground as a place of safety and belonging for young people. Since The Graveyard Book, graveyards have become agential sites. Young people live in graveyards or adjacent to them, pets are resurrected, and humans work together with the undead to seek justice for wrongdoings. In each case, graveyards are a chronotope for adolescent liminality – that space and time between childhood and adulthood. Although graveyards appear in many texts for young people, their significance has not been the focus of much academic scholarship beyond attention to Gaiman's novel. In this chapter, I focus my analysis on a selection of texts published between 2017 and 2021 in which graveyards are implicit sites of being: Graveyard Shakes; The Graveyard Riddle; Death and Douglas; The Graveyard Girl and the Boneyard Boy; and Cemetery Boys. Each text features a graveyard or cemetery as a Gothic chronotope, a space the young protagonists occupy to negotiate and fortify their sense of self. These graveyard narratives represent graveyards and adolescence as liminal locale and, as I contend, a space and time for young people to express and develop their being in an ontological exchange with an Other.

in Graveyard Gothic
Larry Silver

Dürer often represented armour and made several designs for novel forms of armour for his imperial patron Maximilian I. This chapter explores Dürer’s engagement with the representation of armour throughout his lifetime, particularly through Maximilian’s tomb project. Through his depictions of and novel designs for armour, we can see Dürer pushing both the limits and the conventions of the woodcut and etching artforms.

in Albrecht Dürer’s material world
The matter of etching
Edward H. Wouk

Albrecht Dürer’s Landscape with a Cannon is the final and most ambitious of the six etchings on iron that the artist produced between 1515 and 1518. This chapter discusses Dürer’s ambitions towards innovation and testing the limits of new techniques, as well as why he brought the seemingly incongruous motifs of landscape, cannon and foreign figures into conversation in a single image, and why he chose to do so in the novel medium of etching on iron.

in Albrecht Dürer’s material world

The painter and printmaker Albrecht Dürer is one of the most important figures of the German Renaissance. This book accompanies the first major exhibition of the Whitworth art gallery’s outstanding Dürer collection in over half a century. It offers a new perspective on Dürer as an intense observer of the worlds of manufacture, design and trade that fill his graphic art. Artworks and artefacts examined here expose understudied aspects of Dürer’s art and practice, including his attentive examination of objects of daily domestic use, his involvement in economies of local manufacture and exchange, the microarchitectures of local craft and, finally, his attention to cultures of natural and philosophical inquiry and learning.

Open Access (free)
Psychoanalytic therapy of psychoses in 1950s clinical psychiatry
Marietta Meier

After World War II, several psychiatrists in the USA began treating schizophrenic patients psychoanalytically. Various methods were applied. However, all approaches were based on the assumption that people with schizophrenia had suffered severe trauma in their early childhood. The therapy was intended to give the patients some of the love and care they had previously missed, and heal them in this way. In the early 1950s, the Psychiatric University Hospital of Zurich was likely the first state hospital in Europe to apply and study analytical psychotherapy for psychoses. Although clinical psychiatry was usually suspicious of, if not radically opposed to, the psychotherapy of schizophrenia, these trials attracted wide international interest. By pursuing a cultural-historical praxeological approach, the contribution examines the psychotherapeutic attempt and its consequences in Zurich and beyond. Based on medical records, further internal clinic documents, correspondence and contemporary specialist articles, it identifies the patterns of perception, interpretation and action in the analysed context. The focus is on the interaction processes between the new method and the relations among various groups of actors, the clinical setting as well as institutional routines. Analytic psychotherapy resulted, so the argument goes, in a fundamental, largely unintended, change in psychiatric practices, which was driven by many other factors that influenced each other.

in Doing psychiatry in postwar Europe
Abstract only
The futures of graveyard Gothic
Eric Parisot
,
David McAllister
, and
Xavier Aldana Reyes

This chapter considers the future of the graveyard Gothic in a twenty-first-century landscape transformed by developments in the management and mourning of the dead, as well as by a growing secularism. The chapter begins with a discussion of how the multiple overlapping crises of the last decade have begun to reshape contemporary deathways: war, pandemic and a rapidly developing ecological catastrophe have all threatened to transform, whether temporarily or in more enduring ways, the relationship between the living and the buried dead. Here, as elsewhere in the collection, we explore the graveyard’s political ramifications through discussions of how COVID-19 reshaped burial practices, and how Spain has begun to reckon with its twentieth-century history through the exhumation of mass graves made in the Civil War era. What emerges is a picture of the graveyard’s resonance to contemporary movements for political and social justice, and speculations on how that might continue to develop in an age where resources are becoming scarcer due to population growth and environmental change. The chapter ends with a discussion of the future both of Death Studies as a field of scholarly endeavour and of burial itself as founding institution of many human civilisations.

in Graveyard Gothic