This chapter moves from the analysis of artists’ bodies to the bodies in their work. The languid, horizontal male body in the work of Warhol and other lesser-known figures in his milieu takes center stage, including in underground film and theater. Through a close reading of Warhol’s film Couch (1964) and Smith’s Flaming Creatures (1963), the chapter theorizes the political and cultural significance of the queer horizontal. The term encapsulates the critical potency of horizontal bodies against and within the modern regime of upright, productive verticality prevalent in all aspects of art and life. A second meaning of horizontality the chapter proposes has to do with its historiographical intervention: through formal analysis, the chapter draws a new, synchronic line through 1960s art to connect between different mediums and artistic conversations, with the logic of the drooping horizontal as a connecting thread. The chapter expands the notion of the queer horizontal to include the proto-feminist work of well-known figures such as Louise Bourgeois, Yayoi Kusama, and Lynda Benglis, as well as the work of more “mainstream” artists such as John Chamberlain. The chapter ends with a consideration of contemporary Japanese artist Yasumasa Morimura, who inserts his body into the heteronormative and racialized visual economy of Manet’s Olympia.
The final chapter dives into 1960s art and dance historiography to delineate how the queer contributions of Herko and his peers at the postmodern Judson Dance Theater were sidestepped in the history of this period. Unpacking the straightening lines of minimalism’s predominance, the chapter traces how the minimalist art and dance coalition asserted itself through the naming, and then exclusion, of queer work. The chapter draws a parallel between Herko’s nostalgia for the Ballets Russes with Smith’s gravitation towards Ruth St. Denis as an inter-media queer artistic expression that a vertical, Oedipal model of avant-garde experimentation tends to dismiss simply as retrograde. Herko’s dances provide a metaphor for a transcending line that cuts through historiographical constructs predicated on place and medium. With another dynamic of exclusion, one based on race, in mind, the chapter ends with the work of contemporary, queer choreographer Trajal Harrell’s Twenty Looks, or Paris is Burning at the Judson Church, which stages imaginary encounters between 1960s voguers at the ballroom dance scene in Harlem and the postmodernist Judsonites. Self-reflexive historiographical and bodily awareness is proposed as a generative, creative practice with the power to rectify and renew history.
Henry Edward Manning (1808–92) was involved in some of the most pressing social issues of his time, from the defence of workers and trade unionism to finding a solution for the dock strike and the education of the poor. English Catholic social conscience, as a whole and with some singular exceptions, was somewhat slow in following the leadership of the cardinal in some of these matters. This article studies a barely known aspect of Manning’s social activity: his involvement in the British response to the Russian pogroms of 1881–82 and in other contemporary Jewish issues.
Looking for Typological Treasure with William Jones of Nayland and E. B. Pusey
This article compares the typological exegesis promoted by E. B. Pusey (1800–82) and his colleagues John Henry Newman and John Keble with that of their eighteenth-century Hutchinsonian predecessor William Jones of Nayland (1726–1800). Building on Peter Nockles’s argument that Jones’s emphasis on the figurative character of biblical language foreshadows the Tractarian application of the sacramental principle to exegesis, this article shows how this common approach differs from the more cautious one displayed by the High Church luminaries William Van Mildert and Herbert Marsh. At the same time, both Pusey’s criticism of the mainstream apologetics of his day and his more explicit application of the doctrine of the Incarnation to exegesis resulted in bolder interpretations and a greater emphasis on the necessity of figurative readings (of both the Bible and the natural world) than Jones generally proposed. A shared appreciation of the principle of reserve may explain both these differences and the Tractarian emphasis on a patristic, rather than a Hutchinsonian, inspiration for their approach.
The Gendered Politics of Publication of Mary Fletcher’s Auto/Biography
This article focuses on the representation of Methodist preacher Mary Bosanquet Fletcher (1739–1815) in her biography by the Revd Henry Moore. His omissions and commentary served to neutralise some of her more radical ideas and early feminism, which can be discovered by reading her manuscript journals, as well as the manuscript correspondence between Mary Tooth, keeper of Mary Fletcher’s papers, and Henry Moore. The product of archival research in the Methodist collections at the John Rylands Library in Manchester, this article owes a great debt to archivists Dr Peter Nockles and Dr Gareth Lloyd.
In 1869, Parliament disestablished the Church of Ireland, dissolving what Benjamin Disraeli called the ‘sacred union’ of church and state in Ireland. Disestablishment involved fundamental issues – the identity and purpose of the established church, the religious nature of the state, the morality of state appropriation of church property for secular uses, and the union of Ireland and Britain – and debate was carried on at a high intellectual level. With disestablishment, the Church of Ireland lost much of its property, but it recovered, now as an independent Episcopal church with a renewed mission. The idea of the United Kingdom as a semi-confessional Protestant state, however, was dealt a serious blow.
This article considers the sermons preached by royal chaplains at the court of James II and the organisation of the chapel royal by James as a Catholic organisation. In doing so, it addresses the question of where James’s assurance and certainty came from that he was ruling as God wished him to do. The evidence presented here is that James organised his Catholic chapel royal to be a conscious source of guidance and support. His chaplains reciprocated by addressing him as a Catholic king whose duty was to bring to heel a recalcitrant and stubborn people. His chaplains used historical precedent and theological argument to press on James his determination to bring his Protestant subjects to obedience. This is a study of the Catholic milieu of James’s court and of the theological impetus behind his rule.
Architecture and visual arts in general have been subjects of a growing body of recent scholarship connected with the ecclesiastical history of the ‘Long Eighteenth Century’, but little attention has been given to portraiture. Although honourable mention should be made of pioneering work by John Ingamells on painted episcopal portraits, and by Peter Forsaith, very recently, on Methodist portrait prints, other aspects of this extensive subject still await investigation. The article outlines the development of engraved portrayal of clergy, mainly of the Church of England, during the two centuries before production of multiple images was taken over by photography, and indicates how the quantity, variety, and dissemination of such material can provide some index of the priorities of a pre-photographic age. It does not aim to be a comprehensive or a complete survey of the corpus of engraved portraiture; nevertheless, this article provides an initial guide to the abundance of previously unexplored illustrative material, and may suggest a framework for further exploration. It is hoped that future scholars will build on this initial work to enable a complete catalogue of such images to be developed and further explored.
Hutchinsonianism, a set of ideas developed by John Hutchinson, did not necessarily command considerable respect among intellectuals in the eighteenth century. Hutchinson held that science was divine in origin and was rooted in the Old Testament. He denied the Newtonian principle of gravity and argued that God was necessary for the application of physical laws. He also developed a highly symbolic interpretation of religious ideas. George Horne (1730–92) was an exception in taking Hutchinsonianism seriously. Horne’s ideas aimed at uniting Christian orthodoxy against a common enemy, particularly those who undermined Trinitarian Christianity. This article examines Horne’s ideas as a Hutchinsonianism and explores his debt to Hutchinson. Horne also can be regarded as the most important representative of the Oxford Hutchinsonians of his generation, in the sense that his orthodoxy and adherence to Hutchinson’s ideas were aimed at finding a common ground between the two.