This chapter explores the background of foreign occupation in Egypt and periods of non-Egyptian migration into the Nile Valley. Connections to Greece and Rome are discussed by way of artefacts (particularly pottery and terracottas) and what they can show us about the nature of military dominance, religious observance and social practices in the Graeco-Roman period.
This brief afterword returns to two questions posed by Max Silverman in his foreword to the volume: i) whether the dominating framework and vocabulary of psychoanalytic interpretation have obscured other ways of approaching dreams and their relationship to atrocity; ii) whether unconventional modes of reading dreams might offer a means of explicating how dreams are activated by historical, political and cultural phenomena. Positioning itself against a reductive understanding of dreams and narrow psychoanalytic frameworks, the volume has nonetheless retained the idea that dreams are a fundamental part of reality, with the capacity to bring to light what otherwise remains invisible. The afterword concludes by identifying the volume as a form of oneiric archive that brings lived dreams and dreamlike aesthetics into dialogue with moments of historical and cultural atrocity, thereby elevating the meaning and stakes of dreaming.
This concluding chapter explores how the bigger historical picture opened up by the volume might be pursued further in the context of modern Britain. It does so by asking how we should explain the multiple and always problematic forms assumed by ‘the public’ within public health since its inception as a discrete field of government during the first half of the nineteenth century. The answer the chapter offers accords only a limited role to differing cultures of governance and the succession of liberal, social-democratic and neoliberal forms of statecraft. Of more importance, it suggests, has been the enduring interplay of a set of more basic, fundamental factors. The chapter highlights three in particular: democracy, by which is meant, loosely, considerations of citizenship and political subjectivity and inclusion; strategy, by which is meant considerations of organisational logistics and costs; and finally, epidemiology, by which is meant shifting distributions of morbidity and mortality. The chapter deals with each factor separately, but the argument is that they need to be grasped together if we are to understand why, and how, the public has proved such a problematic, yet central actor in the management of modern public health.
This first empirical chapter presents the adoption process and the implementation of the Serbian anti-discrimination legal framework between 2001 and 2015. It provides an overview of how Serbia’s rapprochement with international society and its European integration process has led to the adoption of different legislation prohibiting discrimination and hate crimes. It is argued that there were three distinct phases in the adoption of the anti-discrimination framework in Serbia, each with particular configurations of domestic and international politics, and it has been these configurations that have been an important explanation for the observed outcomes-in-process. The first phase (2001–05) is characterised by Serbia’s initial democratisation and limited political attention to anti-discrimination principles. The second phase (2005–09) sees the politicisation of LGBT issues, as well as the adoption of the anti-discrimination law following a pro-European political shift. The final phase is characterised by the continued expansion of the anti-discrimination framework as tactical Europeanisation. Overall, the chapter demonstrates the importance of a non-EU centric approach to the analysis of the Europeanisation of the anti-discrimination policies with regard to LGBT rights. It is argued that the different phases in the process and the respective outcomes-in-process are the results of the changing relations between the different actors in the transnational policy field as well as the intertwining of different policy fields. Highlighting the centrality of the agency of domestic actors, the chapter also argues that conditionality is better conceived of as a facilitator rather than a driver of change.
Eighteenth-century Jamaica offers seemingly innumerable examples of defensive domestic architecture, suggesting that the British occupation of Jamaica was from its inception marked by a clear sense of martial contest. This militarisation of the domestic sphere differentiates Jamaica from the colonies of the American mainland. Yet there are some extraordinary parallels between the plantation houses of mid-eighteenth-century Jamaica and early-seventeenth-century Ireland. Both are marked by militarised towered houses. Just as Munster in southern Ireland boasts a large number of English-built manor houses defined largely by four prominent corner towers, so too does that form prevail in the older more predominantly English parishes of Clarendon and St Dorothy on Jamaica. Drawing from a centuries-long practice in the British colonial landscape, newly wealthy planters in Jamaica used architecture to assert their authority over a contested landscape. And just as Ulster exhibited a number of Scottish-derived towered houses, usually with appended or freestanding defensive flankers, so, too, is this form evident in Jamaica, again built largely by Scots. Emigrating Scots were not unfamiliar with the militarisation of houses in a colonial context. The architecture of Jamaica is best positioned not in light of contemporary developments in America, but as an extension of the architecture beyond the pale.
Female Fortune: The Anne Lister Diaries 1833–36 inspired Sally Wainwright to write Gentleman Jack, her major drama series (BBC1 and HBO, 2019 and 2022). This companion volume Anne’s story from May 1836, with the death of her elderly father and the effective banishment of her sister. In the autumn, with the death of Anne’s beloved aunt, Anne Lister and Ann Walker were on their own at Shibden. Anne’s magnificent diaries record their life together. The compelling coded passages reveal the ups and downs of their lesbian marriage. Alongside, Anne developed her own coal mines, embellished Shibden’s architecture, and was politically active, especially at the 1837 election.
So, was it ‘as good as a marriage’? And what was heterosexual marriage like then? Married women had few rights. Both women had to be courageous, always easier for Anne than for Ann. By placing this lesbian relationship in its historical context, Jill Liddington shines a dazzling light on this subversive marriage and its tensions.
Immigrants have been deemed a ‘problem public’ because they are branded as ‘other’, as threats to public health and as potential burdens on health systems. In addition, immigrants and migrants usually lack the rights conferred on citizens, including the right to receive government-funded medical services. This chapter examines how international human rights treaties on the right to health have included or excluded people who move across national borders. The 1990 United Nations' International Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers codified only weak health rights for migrants and has only been ratified by a few countries. However, an international human rights framework has been and can be used to fight for better health conditions and access to care for migrants and immigrants. Since 1990, human rights advocates and immigrant rights activists in the US and Spain have invoked international agreements to argue for the inclusion of immigrants and migrants in definitions of ‘the public’.
This chapter analysis the implementation of anti-discrimination legislation and its consequences for lived experiences. Building on the existing Europeanisation literature which has highlighted EU practices, and domestic institutional and political barriers as key explanations for limited implementation of new laws, the chapter argues that these are insufficient explanations to fully grasp why the anti-discrimination legislation remains weakly implemented. The chapter challenges the overly institution-focused analysis of the Europeanisation of fundamental rights. With its implicit assumption that (formal) compliance with EU rules and adoption of institutions eventually leads to social change, such institutional analysis ignores broader processes of social change. As such, the chapter takes a societal approach in its detailed analysis of the implementation gap of the Serbian LGBT-related anti-discrimination legislation. In particular, the chapter argues that the social environment in which these laws operate creates its own barriers for individuals to exercise their rights. Indeed, in the case of anti-discrimination legislation, the social environment has shown to constitute an attitudinal panopticon where people who are different from the norm self-regulate their actions to avoid becoming too visible, which would lead to increased discrimination. The lack of social change becomes a disciplining environment in which people whose rights have been violated are prevented from seeking justice out of fear of further and more severe violations of their rights.
In this chapter the editors review the events of the civil war of 1321-22, as well as the immediate precursors to war and Edward’s response in its immediate aftermath. With particular reference to narrative accounts, key moments in the civil war are presented, as well as the eventual defeat, trial and execution of Lancaster and other leading contrariants. Edward’s triumphant parliament at York in 1322 and the repeal of most of the Ordinances of 1311 is also discussed and relevant sources presented, including an agenda for the York parliament and the resultant statute and Chancery enrolments.
LGBT rights have become increasingly salient within the EU enlargement process as a litmus test for Europeanness. Yet, they are also increasingly subject to contestation. To analyse the symbolism of LGBT rights in the EU enlargement process and its impact on LGBT politics in candidate countries, Coming in presents a novel relational and transnational conceptualisation of the Europeanisation process. Empirically the book analyses the promotion of and resistance to LGBT equality norms in Serbia’s EU integration process. Through a critical analysis, Coming in demonstrates that the EU enlargement process has created the opportunity for Serbia to politicise LGBT rights for its own goals and engage in, what this book has labelled, tactical Europeanisation. The book demonstrates how candidate countries can instrumentalise EU identity markers for their own political goals, undermining the impact of reforms on the ground. Overall, Coming in demonstrates the need for a more critical analysis of the politics embedded in the EU enlargement process that goes beyond institutional changes to included specific transnational configurations of politics and the complex (negotiated) outcomes they produce. In doing so, it raises critical questions about what we consider progress and the role of legal and institutional change within it. Rights without material change for people remain empty, make-believe signifiers of progress, as progress in law without a change in their lived experience remains hypothetical.