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The Chinese ping-pong team visits Africa in 1962
Amanda Shuman

A decade before official 'ping-pong diplomacy', leaders in the People's Republic of China (PRC) used sports delegation visits to cultivate diplomatic relations with recently decolonised nations. In the early 1960s, the Sino-Soviet split, the rise of various Afro-Asian movements and decolonisation in Africa led to intense Sino-Soviet competition for socialist influence in the Third World. Officially presented to the Chinese public as ‘friendly’ sports exchanges, PRC leaders sought to expand their influence and prove Chinese socialism under Mao as an alternative (and superior) model to that of the Soviet Union. The chapter, based primarily on declassified official reports from Chinese archives, begins with the first major PRC sports delegation sent to Africa in 1962, a contingent of well-known ping-pong athletes. The visit helped Chinese leaders gather knowledge on new allies, officially express shared historical and political solidarities against colonialism and imperialism, and, through sport, demonstrate China's achievements through socialism. These visits sought to build diplomatic ties while promoting and shoring up support – foreign as well as domestic – for a Chinese brand of socialism that professed an alternative, non-Soviet path to socialist modernity.

in Sport and diplomacy
Actors and institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cyprus and Northern Ireland
Laurence Cooley

This chapter seeks to address the question of how sport is governed in societies that are deeply divided along ethnic, religious or other lines. The chapter focuses on three case studies: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cyprus and Northern Ireland. It argues that, in each of these cases, the institutions that have been employed in order to manage relations between groups in the governance of sport are more integrative than those that have been employed at the broader political level, where accommodation or outright division are the norm. The chapter explores the nature of these institutions and examines the role of a range of actors involved in their establishment. In particular, the chapter highlights the rhetorical impact that claims about the unifying experience of sport have on relevant actors' perceptions of how it should be governed. It also questions whether the integrative approach taken in the three case studies is part of a deliberate conflict management strategy or whether it is instead simply a product of the more technocratic concerns of international and regional governing bodies.

in Sport and diplomacy
A case study of South Africa’s hosting of the 2010 FIFA Football World Cup
Suzanne Dowse

This chapter responds to issues surrounding mega sports events using a study of the political and international relations dimensions of South Africa’s hosting of the 2010 Football World Cup. The findings presented confirm the importance of foreign policy in the political ambitions held for the event and provide discussion points concerning the position of middle powers within the international community and the policy tools available to them. They also highlight how the value placed on the foreign policy potential of the event, such as the perceived opportunity to demonstrate parity of status with the developed international community, reduced the capacity to pursue or protect domestic policy interests. This notwithstanding, positive outcomes were perceived in a range of areas which suggests that hosting events in developing country contexts may provide valuable opportunities to advance domestic and foreign policy interests if more is known about the true nature of the opportunities presented and how to realise them.

in Sport and diplomacy
Concluding thoughts on sport and diplomacy
Aaron Beacom and J. Simon Rofe

This concluding chapter draws together the themes that have emerged in the volume and provides an overarching analysis of the three sections concerning the concepts and history of sport and diplomacy, its relationship to public diplomacy and soft power, and considerations of boycotts. Furthermore, it considers a range of questions which simultaneously consolidate but also challenge the parameters of the field. These include the validity of sport as a ‘site of diplomacy’, the value of spatial and temporal dimensions to the field, and lines of future research.

in Sport and diplomacy
Abstract only
Games within games
Editor: J. Simon Rofe

The purpose of this book is to critically enhance the appreciation of diplomacy and sport in global affairs from the perspective of practitioners and scholars. The book will make an important new contribution to at least two distinct fields: diplomacy and sport, as well as to those concerned with history, politics, sociology and international relations. The critical analysis the book provides explores the linkages across these fields, particularly in relation to soft power and public diplomacy, and is supported by a wide range of sources and methodologies. The book draws in a range of scholars across these different fields, and includes esteemed FIFA scholar Professor Alan Tomlinson. Tomlinson addresses diplomacy within the world’s global game of Association Football, while other subjects include the rise of mega-sport events as sites of diplomacy, new consideration of Chinese ping-pong diplomacy prior to the 1970s and the importance of boycotts in sport – particularly in relation to newly explored dimensions of the boycotts of the 1980 and 1984 Olympic Games. The place of non-state actors is explored throughout: be they individual or institutions they perform a crucial role as conduits of the transactions of sport and diplomacy. Based on twentieth- and twenty-first-century evidence, the book acknowledges antecedents from the ancient Olympics to the contemporary era, and in its conclusions offers avenues for further study based on the future sport and diplomacy relationship. The book has a strong international basis because it covers a broad range of countries, their diplomatic relationship with sport and is written by a truly transnational cast of authors. The intense media scrutiny of the Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup and other international sports will also contribute to the global interest in this volume.

Selling the Reagan revolution through the 1984 Olympic Games
Umberto Tulli

The chapter aims at investigating the role of the Reagan administration in organising the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics. Contrary to previous understandings, which tend to dismiss federal government involvement in the organisation of the Games, it highlights the political and diplomatic actions undertaken by the Reagan administration to organise a perfect performance of the Olympics and to sell the world reaganism through the Los Angeles Games. With the creation of an Olympic task force within the White House, the Los Angeles Games were perceived as a showcase for Ronald Reagan's America. The task force immediately concluded that the federal government would act behind the scenes, providing all the necessary security measures for the LAOOC and the Games, coordinating diplomatic actions and looking over consular practices. Tasks increased when the Soviets announced their boycott: the White House defined a clear damage-limiting strategy. In its conclusions, the chapter discusses a sort of paradox: the Reagan administration was increasingly involved in the promotion of what it presented as a government-free edition of the Olympics.

in Sport and diplomacy
Politico-economies of Slavery, Indentured Labour and Debt Peonage
Mark Harvey

As a complement to the previous chapter, based on current scholarship and debates, this chapter demonstrates how deeply entwined slavery was with the development of industrial capitalism. Moreover, thriving slave economies were succeeded by new forms of bonded and unfree labour, rather than free wage labour, through to the middle of the 20th century. It argues that there is no purely economic incompatibility between capitalism and slavery, including in the present day. Only political struggles and new moralities replaced old forms of economic and power inequalities with the persistent inequalities of the present day. The chapter analyses the epistemological suppression of slavery and coerced labour within classical and modern economic conceptions of the abstract market economy.

in Inequality and Democratic Egalitarianism
‘Marx’s Economy and Beyond’ and Other Essays
Editors: Mark Harvey and Norman Geras

This book arose out of a friendship between a political philosopher and an economic sociologist, and their recognition of an urgent political need to address the extreme inequalities of wealth and power in contemporary societies.

The book provides a new analysis of what generates inequalities in rights to income, property and public goods in contemporary societies. It claims to move beyond Marx, both in its analysis of inequality and exploitation, and in its concept of just distribution. In order to do so, it critiques Marx’s foundational Labour Theory of Value and its closed-circuit conception of the economy. It points to the major historical transformations that create educational and knowledge inequalities, inequalities in rights to public goods that combine with those to private wealth. In two historical chapters, it argues that industrial capitalism introduced new forms of coerced labour in the metropolis alongside a huge expansion of slavery and indentured labour in the New World, with forms of bonded labour lasting well into the twentieth century. Only political struggles, rather than any economic logic of capitalism, achieved less punitive forms of employment. It is argued that these were only steps along a long road to challenge asymmetries of economic power and to realise just distribution of the wealth created in society.

Mark Harvey

This chapter gives an account of how the perspectives of a political philosopher and an economic sociologist are brought to bear on how the contemporary extremes of inequality are generated in society. It explains why Marx remains a major focus of interest. It then sets the book within the contemporary debates and approaches to inequality, both national and global. It argues that in important ways the latter are a regression from Marx, whereas this book represents an attempt to go beyond Marx, by exploring deeper and broader analysis of the processes generating inequalities to both market and public goods.

in Inequality and Democratic Egalitarianism
in Inequality and Democratic Egalitarianism