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Phrenology and the nineteenth-century popular imagination
Author: William Hughes

The dome of thought examines how phrenology and phrenologists were represented in British daily newspapers, popular magazines and serious journals from the opening of the nineteenth century to its conclusion, before tracing the residual influence of the pseudoscience across the twentieth century and, surprisingly, into the second decade of the twenty-first century. The book opens with a consideration of how phrenology was deployed to explain literary celebrity in the Victorian period with particular attention being directed to the interpretation of the skulls of William Shakespeare and Robert Burns. The book then continues by recalling the manner in which the doctrine of phrenology was introduced to British culture in the early nineteenth century, and the manner in which the Continental activities of Franz Joseph Gall and Johann Gasper Spurzheim were reported. The lecture tour of Britain and Ireland subsequently undertaken by Spurzheim is discussed, and the book reassess the controversy which surrounded his encounter with the Scottish medical establishment in 1816. Spurzheim’s influence upon George Combe, the Scottish lawyer who was the popular face of British phrenology for much of the century, is then considered, as is the interface of phrenological thought with mesmerism in the work of John Elliotson. The final chapter of the book surveys the declining years of speculative and theoretical phrenology and its transformation into a primarily commercial activity under the particular influence of the American Fowler brothers. The conclusion surveys phrenology in the twentieth century, and its resurgence in political satires directed against Donald Trump.

Bereavement, time, and home spaces in Marilynne Robinson’s Housekeeping and Home
Lucy Clarke

This essay focuses on the depictions of intimate grief that are at the core of two of Marilynne Robinson’s novels. It examines the author’s dense metaphorical representations of the sanctity of human loss through the interaction of her characters with houses, shelters, shacks, and barns. Drawing in particular on work from cultural geography and ritual studies, this essay presents a set of analyses of domestic spaces and domestic rituals in Housekeeping and Home to argue that Robinson’s houses are sacred ‘timespaces’ in which tiny, daily gestures function as metaphoric enactments of the sublimity of loss. It also explores her representations of homelessness as equally potent metaphors for the prolonged suffering of grief.

in Marilynne Robinson
Christopher Lloyd

The home is a central fixture in the cultural imaginary of the United States. In Home, Marilynne Robinson utilises the affects and feelings that circulate in and through a mid-twentieth century Iowan home to probe the relations between memory, race, and nation. This essay argues that Home shifts the Gilead novels to a dominant tone of sadness and melancholy and that the centrality of feeling in Robinson’s novel has decidedly political ends. The sadness that moves within the Boughton home when Jack, the ‘prodigal son’, returns from many years away, agitates the family and community from forgetting, or side-lining, familial and national concerns. The home-spaces of Robinson’s novel therefore require the reader to dwell on twentieth-century America as it is ruptured and troubled from within. In this way, Home quietly and emotively disturbs domestic and public spaces.

in Marilynne Robinson
Phrenology in Britain during the first decade of the nineteenth century
William Hughes

The origins of phrenology are Continental rather than British. The opening chapter therefore surveys the earliest theories of an identifiable phrenology – those formulated by the German physician Franz Joseph Gall in Vienna – as they were reported in the British press. The religious controversy surrounding Gall’s studies, which were ostensibly associated with a form of secularism incompatible with Roman Catholic spirituality, is noted for its prominence in British popular reportage, where authors were quick to avail themselves of the opportunity to enjoin in xenophobic mockery. Gall’s extensive tour of Europe, which followed the apparently hostile reception by the Austrian authorities, is then considered, and hitherto unreprinted reports of the doctor’s earliest phrenological experiments are quoted and analysed. These include both favourable accounts and others which dismissed phrenology as a fad already in decline, and thus not likely to attract any following in Britain. The possibility of Gall travelling to Britain, and of his analysing the crania of the upper classes, was similarly the subject of mocking journalism. The chapter reproduces some of the earliest graphic images of the phrenological model of the skull and discusses and explains the significance of the earliest tabulation of the phrenological organs to appear in the English language. Notably, the fluid and developing nature of the phrenological map of character is acknowledged, and the debate about the function and location of different organs is played out in the popular press. This is an important chapter as it outlines the earliest incarnation of phrenology in anglophone culture.

in The dome of thought
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A little different every time' - Accumulation and repetition in Jack
Rachel Sykes

This essay closes the collection by considering what Robinson’s fourth Gilead novel, Jack, adds to the quartet. Returning to the same characters in four temporally and spatially limited stories, the Gilead novels work by a process of repetition and slow accumulation, adding meaning through slight changes in voice, perspective, and the gradual revelation of detail. Jack alters this thesis only slightly, retelling the much-discussed life of Jack ‘John Ames’ Boughton from a third-person perspective more closely aligned with his psyche and finally covering the period before Gilead when he began his relationship with Della Miles. Yet, adding more detail to the already well-trodden story of Jack and his inter-racial relationship with Della demonstrates major gaps in how Jack – and, indeed, Robinson – perceives his impact on others. This essay therefore ends the collection by questioning the centrality of whiteness to the Gilead novels and asking who, in these novels, gets the privilege of second, third, or fourth chances.

in Marilynne Robinson
Civil rights, civil war, and radical transformation in Home and Gilead
Tessa Roynon

This chapter argues that race and racial equality are a central, stand-alone, and defining preoccupation in Robinson’s oeuvre. This essay argues that Gilead and Home constitute two of the most radical novels on the subject of race and civil rights in America. They have far more in common with Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man (1952) or Toni Morrison’s Jazz (1992) than they do with novels by other white authors that similarly invoke the racial politics of the 1950s and 1960s. Whereas for Philip Roth or Jeffrey Eugenides, for example, racial difference and racial ‘mixing’ exist predominantly as useful metaphors, for Robinson race ‘as race’ is an unresolved conflict at the heart of her project. In this she is allied – to some extent – with William Faulkner, and most closely with the radical writers of the nineteenth-century such as Herman Melville and Mark Twain, as this essay concludes.

in Marilynne Robinson
Anna Maguire Elliott

This essay considers how Robinson uses the figure of the orphan to explore the tension between American self-reliance and a feminist ethic-of-care. It argues that in repositioning the concept of care outside of the home, Robinson rewrites the terms of domesticity in order to embrace the idea of the interdependence of the human and natural worlds. Despite being separate works written 30 years apart, Housekeeping and Lila call for a comparative reading because of their central female protagonists and their shared thematic concern with women’s transience. In both novels there is a strong link between the orphan's isolation and the natural world, as Robinson explores an Emersonian model of self-reliance, of finding an individual, nonconformist connection to the American landscape. Indeed, through her use of the female orphan trope, Robinson asks whether it is possible to reconcile the separation of the landscape from the American home: to maintain a solitary connection to nature, while also embracing the relationships of care central to domesticity. Like the nineteenth-century women writers before her, she both challenges the domestic ideal and extends its message of interdependence, framing this within the contemporary context of environmentalism.

in Marilynne Robinson
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Rachel Sykes, Jennifer Daly, and Anna Maguire Elliot

The introduction to New Perspectives on Marilynne Robinson highlights the new and varied contemporary and critical contexts in which this noted author might be read. Introducing how we might read Robinson as an author of the ‘now’, the editors discuss her fiction’s reimagining of rural histories through constructions of race, gender, and the failures of white allyship, and her nonfiction’s focus on the conservative politics of the neoliberal university, nuclear power and the governmental dumping of nuclear waste, issues of American democracy and the presidencies of George W. Bush, Barack Obama, and Donald Trump, and the state of political thought in the contemporary United States.

in Marilynne Robinson
Archive fever and the Gilead novels of Marilynne Robinson
Daniel Robert King

This essay draws on critical debates around archives to examine the creation and destruction of written histories in the work of Marilynne Robinson. Using the critical work of Jacques Derrida, Helen Freshwater, and Janine Utell, the essay examines what Derrida would term Ames's mal d'archive, his archive fever. If Gilead is a letter that John Ames writes as ‘a reasonably candid testament to [his] better self’, it is also a way to be remembered by his son. Yet over the course of Gilead, letters, sermons, and books are burned, buried, and destroyed by flood. Focusing primarily on Ames in Gilead, this essay argues that what Ames fears, what motivates his decision to write his long letter, is the deadening, totalising force of the archive, as he struggles to maintain his own identity against the inevitability of being remembered.

in Marilynne Robinson
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Best known for a trilogy of historical novels set in the fictional town of Gilead, Iowa, Marilynne Robinson is a prolific essayist, teacher, and public speaker, routinely celebrated as a singular author of contemporary American fiction. This collection intervenes in the author’s growing critical reputation, pointing to new and exciting links between the author, the historical settings of her novels, and the contemporary themes of her fictional, educational, and theoretical work. Touching on ongoing debates in race, gender, and environmental politics, as well as education, democracy, and the state of critical theory, New Perspectives on Marilynne Robinson demonstrates the wider secular and popular impact of the author’s work, building on the largely theological focus of previous criticism to suggest new and innovative interpretations of her oeuvre.

The collection’s four sections are dedicated to: Robinson’s use of form and style; her exploration of the relationship between gender and the environment; her use of history and the intersection of race, rights, and religion in her work; and a discussion of Robinson and her contemporaries. As such, the collection argues for a reconsideration of Robinson within the field of American and English Studies, by bringing together 16 new, vibrant, and undoubtedly contemporary analyses of her work. Authors include: Bridget Bennett, Richard King, Sarah Churchwell, Jack Baker, Maria Elena Carpintero Torres-Quevedo, Daniel King, Anna Maguire Elliott, Makayla Steiner, Lucy Clarke, Christopher Lloyd, Tessa Roynon, Alexander Engebretson, Emily Hammerton-Barry, Steve Gronert Ellerhoff, Kathryn E. Engebretson, Paul Jenner, and Rachel Sykes."