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Polish migrants in the UK
Aleksandra Grzymala-Kazlowska

Chapter 5 analyses the mechanisms of adaptation and settling among Polish migrants in the UK. Even though settlement processes remained more noticeable among the Poles than the Ukrainians, they could still be better characterised in terms of anchoring rather than putting down roots. The research demonstrated the centrality of security and stability in the experience of Polish migrants in the UK. The migrants represented agents looking for life opportunities while recovering their sense of stability and security, based mainly on the ethno-cultural networks, family ties and work opportunities. The footholds strengthening Polishness and ethnic bonds included: Polish language and culture; strong national identity; close family; narrow circles of support and the wider Polish community (particularly involvement in the Polish school, church and voluntary work). They were related to gender and family roles as well as homemaking and other daily practices. The main footholds grounding the migrants in British society encompassed: work, English language (e.g. skills, language classes); children’s (English) school and after-school activities, and anchors in neighbourhoods and local communities. In spite of many commonalities in anchoring across the sample, differences were noticeable between family-oriented participants, single (working) self-oriented migrants and institution-oriented migrants (e.g. the homeless or other vulnerable individuals), showing the variety of adaptation and settling patterns.

in Rethinking settlement and integration
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Regulatory giraffes?
Adam Hedgecoe

This final chapter will draw the various threads of the book together and reflect on them in the light of current debates around Research Ethics Committee (REC) review. This chapter will explore how many of the historical challenges raised by REC practice (for example, the geographical variation in approval rates resulting from autonomous, local committees or the review of scientific quality of applications) are still subject to considerable debate on the part of policy makers and how the proposed responses – because they fail to engage with the central role of trust – run the risk of undermining REC decision making.

The chapter then sets out three specific insights – around REC membership, the regulation of risk, and street-level bureaucracies – that arise from the book as a whole.

in Trust in the system
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Michael Pierse, Churnjeet Mahn, Sarita Malik, and Ben Rogaly

The conclusion brings together the range of learning across the book in relation to co-creativity, radical openness and creative interruptions in a hostile world. It suggests where the project has succeeded in developing creative interventions that disrupt the political status quo, while also conceding those areas where its attempts at doing so were scuppered or constrained by ideologies, orthodoxies and material practices. The chapter considers Henry Giroux’s concept of the ‘disimagination machine’ of neoliberalism and how the creative interruptions surveyed create resources and strategies with which to challenge the mechanisms of disimagination; it asks how we have used creativity to envisage alternative futures and connect with radical pasts.

in Creativity and resistance in a hostile world
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From theory to practical applications?
Aleksandra Grzymala-Kazlowska

The concluding chapter explores new directions for research and possibilities of using the theory of anchoring. This part of the monograph opens a discussion about policy and practical implications of anchoring. It underlines the particular importance of the first period of migration, with first encounters and exchanges providing significant framing experiences. The book also highlights the importance of cognitive anchors (both adaptive and adverse) which may be changed when reflected upon by individuals willing to learn, especially when adequately supported. Possible further applications are proposed, based on the principles of cognitive and behavioural therapy to assist migrants in adaptation and settling in the sense of establishing themselves in the receiving society and better satisfying their needs of safety and security. The chapter claims that the theoretical and practical significance of the concept of anchoring seems to go beyond migration studies. This approach might be useful for theorising the recovery of individuals’ safety and stability after major changes and crises, as well as analysing the wider problem of settling and adaptation to life in the complex and changeable world, particularly in the case of those who have experienced traumatic life changes and/or remain not grounded or socially connected, such as homeless people.

in Rethinking settlement and integration
Screen and digital labour as resistance
Photini Vrikki, Sarita Malik, and Aditi Jaganathan

How have ideas of race and belonging helped shape creative work? Chapter 3 explores how different generations of Black and Asian activists in the UK have mobilised screen media, from film to digital, as a response to the institutional practices and cultural norms that generate disparate racialised outcomes. The discussion provides an opportunity to focus on the motivations of creative activists who use the film form and podcasting to agitate for anti-racism. The chapter provides an overview of the Black British context of creative production and exclusion. It foregrounds the testimonies of archivists, curators, podcasters and filmmakers to explore the anti-racist interruptions that are made possible by different media technologies and platforms; the particular interventions that are envisaged by cultural producers; and the effects that such representations actually create.

in Creativity and resistance in a hostile world
Co-creation, theatre and collaboration for social transformation in Belfast
Michael Pierse, Martin Lynch, and Fionntán Hargey

This chapter assesses, from a range of angles, the successes and challenges faced by practitioners, academics, community workers, activists and participants in co-creating a theatre project focusing on civil rights issues in Belfast. The chapter’s three authors, one a playwright and theatre director, another a community worker and the third an academic – all of whom worked together on the project – each provide perspectives on the project. In the third section, we look at data from the project, including audience surveys and participant interviews, in order to better understand the ways in which co-creativity happened and where it was limited or failed. The ‘Creatively Connecting Civil Rights’ strand of the wider Creative Interruptions initiative on which this chapter is based produced a commercial play, but also a range of smaller outputs, including a radio play, short film and monologue. The chapter therefore also facilitates some consideration of different creative contexts and related approaches.

in Creativity and resistance in a hostile world

What can culture, and its manifestations in artistic and creative forms, ‘do’? Creativity and resistance draws on original collaborative research that brings together a range of stories and perspectives on the role of creativity and resistance in a hostile environment. In times of racial nationalism across the world, it seeks to connect, in a grounded way, how creative acts have agitated for social change. The book suggests that creative actions themselves, and acting together creatively, can at the same time offer vital sources of hope.

Drawing on a series of case studies, Creativity and resistance focuses on the past and emergent grassroots arts work that has responded to migration, racism and social exclusion across several contexts and locations, including England, Northern Ireland and India. The book makes a timely intervention, foregrounding the value of creativity for those who are commonly marginalised from centres of power, including from the mainstream cultural industries. Bringing together academic research with individual and group experiences, the authors also consider the possibilities and limitations of collaborative research projects.

From a metaphor through a sensitising concept to an empirically grounded concept
Aleksandra Grzymala-Kazlowska

Chapter 2 shows how the author’s empirical research on the processes of adaptation and settlement of Polish migrants in Belgium and later Vietnamese and Ukrainian migrants in Poland provided a basis for her critical reflection on the limitations and sometimes insufficiency of the key concepts used in migration studies, especially the concept of integration. It illuminates how the former empirical work and outcomes of previous analyses of the existing theoretical field in migration studies led the author to her search for different ways of conceptualising migrants’ adjustment and settling, and allowed her to sketch her first integrative and transdisciplinary framework incorporating the previously underestimated psychological perspective. This chapter analyses the role of the metaphor of anchor and how the concept had been built upon, and it highlights the significance of a single study of psychological usage of anchors in therapy for cancer patients to overcome identity crises and restore their feeling of continuity and integrity (Little, Jordens and Sayers 2002). The chapter demonstrates that in spite of its theoretical and practical potential, anchoring has not been developed into an analytical concept either in migration studies or in broader social theory, only being mentioned in passing in a metaphorical way by authors such as Bauman (1997) or Castells (1997). The concept of anchoring is thus presented here as an analytical tool which makes use of the strength of its founding metaphor and the promising intuitions which it embraces. The chapter ends by featuring the general characteristics of the concept.

in Rethinking settlement and integration
Adam Hedgecoe

One unusual aspect of UK NHS Research Ethics Committees (RECs) is that, for at least the past decade, it has been standard practice to invite applicants into committee meetings to answer questions about their proposed research and the ethical issues it might raise. This chapter explores the role of meeting people face to face in trust decisions to examine the crucial role of such attendance.

Historically, this chapter examines the policy decisions in the early 2000s to expand invitations to applicants which were typically seen as an idiosyncratic practice on the part of a small number of RECs (in Wales and London, for example) at the request of the pharmaceutical industry (which saw such attendance as increasing the efficiency of ethics review).

The ethnographic component of this chapter draws on observations and REC members’ discussions of such attendances, exploring those aspects of applicants’ demeanour and response to questions – their ‘presentation of self’ – that persuade or dissuade RECs to approve their applications. As part of this, the chapter will explore the way in which RECs interpret applicants’ characteristics (for example, arrogance in response to questions) in terms of how research participants will be treated as well as the kinds of knowledge-based resources (about clinical practice for example) that are hard to articulate in a written application, but which applicants can draw on to persuade RECs that they are trustworthy.

in Trust in the system
Ukrainian migrants in Poland
Aleksandra Grzymala-Kazlowska

Chapter 4 focuses on the adaptation of Ukrainian migrants in Poland captured as a process from drifting to anchoring. It argues that the concept of anchoring allows for understanding of the simultaneity, temporality and flexibility of Ukrainian migrants’ attachments as well as the complexity and changeability of their ‘settlement’. It helps to capture their dynamic identities and the complex mechanisms of settling down. The adaptation and settling of Ukrainian migrants is discussed here in relation to their ‘lasting temporariness’, linked to the nexus of legal constraints (lack of an established legal status – with only three interviewees holding a permanent residence permit), cultural and geographical proximity enabling individuals to cross identity and cultural boundaries, as well as spatial circulation and the maintenance of various simultaneous attachments and links with the country of origin and the host state. The complex and dynamic processes of adaptation and settling are also influenced by Ukrainian migrants’ multiple and fluid identities and ambiguous position in Poland, constructed and perceived by Poles as neither strangers nor the same; neither on the move nor settled. The SAST study showed the Ukrainian migrants’ different layers of anchoring in Poland, from external footholds related to the legal and institutional framework and work, through more complex anchors embedded in social networks and to deeper internal footholds, linked to high competencies in Polish language, familiarity and the constructed cultural closeness, as well as European aspirations, which could coexist with the revival of Ukrainian civic activism in the face of the political developments and the military conflict in Ukraine.

in Rethinking settlement and integration