This chapter examines Russian naval strategy. It examines the Soviet inheritance in terms of its primary missions, theatres of military activity, echelonment, and strategic operations. It then turns to examine contemporary Russian military doctrine, strategy, and deterrence concepts, particularly what Moscow calls “Active Defence”. In offering an assessment of maritime goals and naval policy, the chapter then turns to look at the Russian Navy’s missions and operational art.
The chapter provides an overview of the key themes through the book. It traces the evolution of Russian sea power from the 1990s and the sinking of the Kursk through to today, setting out how Moscow seeks to be part of the wider maritime turn in international affairs. The chapter also frames some of the debates and problems inherent in Russian strategy.
This chapter builds on the distinction between seapower and sea powers and traces the key features of Russia’s role as a sea power, including geographical considerations. The chapter traces the historical role of maritime power, and the fluctuations between the state’s support and neglect, and the impact of Soviet rule. The chapter concludes in discussion of the five Russian paths to sea power.
The chapter sets out the differences between seapowers, states for which the sea is culturally, socially, and economically central, and those that are sea powers – essentially land or continental powers with the resources to build substantial navies to project power by sea. The chapter offers examples of each, framing Russia as a sea power, and situates Russia in terms of the work of Alfred Thayer Mahan and Julian Corbett. The chapter also sets out the importance of history in understanding Russia’s maritime power, especially the centrality of Russia’s economic relationship with the sea.
This chapter examines the economic and industrial underpinnings of Russia’s maritime turn. It offers a detailed assessment of the state funding for the modernisation of the navy and civilian capabilities, including shipbuilding. It argues that by financial investment alone, Russia is already a serious naval power of global import. Problems remain, especially in terms of shipbuilding capacity.
This chapter sets up the questions to be examined in depth in this part. It examines what threats the West faces at sea and the nature of the Russian challenge more specifically in the era of Great Power Competition. It examines the changing nature of the battlespace and the global maritime horizon. The chapter also assesses the challenges the Russian Navy must face with naval strategy and shipbuilding.
The book examines the re-emergence of Russia as a sea power. After years of post-Soviet decline, Moscow has invested substantial resources in establishing Russia as a ‘leading seafaring nation’ of the twenty-first century. The book examines the plans, priorities, and problems in this strategy and why this is important for the West. It describes the historical underpinnings of Russia’s sea power, and then examines both contemporary naval strategy and the economic and industrial underpinnings of the “maritime turn” in Russian strategy.
This chapter explores the dynamic interaction between Western maritime capabilities and navies and Russian power at sea, especially the navy. In assessing the strategic dilemmas Moscow faces, it reflects on the navy’s roles in different stages of conflict, and its wartime tasks. It then examines the problems that the Russian Navy faces both in terms of its own shortfalls and the advantages of Western navies.
The chapter presents a comprehensive historical overview of the practice of referendums and direct democracy in Europe from Napoleon to the present day. Is shows trends and patterns and analyses the policy effects of more Democracy on demand
The chapter surveys different countries’ experiences with democracy on demand. Focusing on the initiative in the United States, it looks at the quality of legislation in a direct democracy, the policy implications of initiatives and the effect of these on the economy. The chapter also analyses the experiences with initiatives in Germany, the Netherlands and New Zealand. In addition, the chapter looks at the effects of agenda initiatives using the example of Denmark.