Open Access (free)
A tale of a young Jewess’s flirtation with Christianity

This chapter begins with a survey of the eighteen proceedings, followed by a micro-historical analysis of the trial against Viviano Sanguinetti, who was accused of dissuading his oldest daughter Miriana from being baptized in 1602. Of the eighteen cases, eight involved the purported dissuasion of potential male converts, nine potential female converts, and one a neophyte who had actually been baptized already for two years by the time the Jews were indicted for having tried to dissuade him. In one processo, that of Mariana Mantuano of 1633, Mariana came to denounce herself, testifying that she had wanted to convert but had then changed her mind, clearly believing that this was the best way of defending herself and preventing further exposure to judicial proceedings. According to Faustina, Miriana had openly discussed Christianity with her, criticized Jewish ritual, and carried a ring engraved with the Madonna of Reggio.

in Jews on trial
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Jewish masters and Christian servants

There are more Inquisitorial processi against Jews for hiring Christian servants than for any other breach of ecclesiastical regulations. This chapter deals with a history of the Church's prohibition of Jews hiring Christian wetnurses and servants. It presents a discussion of the licences issued by ecclesiastical and secular authorities in Modena to moderate Christian service in Jewish households. Inquisitors were ordered to send to Rome a detailed list of all those who held licences, which were from then on only to be authorized by the Congregation of the Holy Office. The chapter also deals with the wetnurse's position in the Jewish household, using the processi as evidence of wider implications, the extent of contact and the form of contract between master and servant. It concentrates on the role of other Christian servants in Jewish households, the type of position assumed and levels of social interaction between Jew and Christian.

in Jews on trial
Open Access (free)
The Papal Inquisition in Modena, 1598–1638

This book explores two areas of interest: the Papal Inquisition in Modena and the status of Jews in an early modern Italian duchy. Its purpose is to deepen existing insights into the role of the former and thus lead to a better understanding of how an Inquisitorial court assumed jurisdiction over a practising Jewish community in the seventeenth century. The book highlights one specific aspect of the history of the Jews in Italy: the trials of professing Jews before the Papal Inquisition at the beginning of the seventeenth century. Inquisitorial processi against professing Jews provide the earliest known evidence of a branch of the Papal Inquisition taking judicial actions against Jews on an unprecedented scale and attempting systematically to discipline a Jewish community, pursuing this aim for several centuries. The book focuses on Inquisitorial activity during the first 40 years of the history of the tribunal in Modena, from 1598 to 1638, the year of the Jews' enclosure in the ghetto, the period which historians have argued was the most active in the Inquisition's history. It argues that trials of the two groups are different because the ecclesiastical tribunals viewed conversos as heretics but Jews as infidels. The book emphasizes the fundamental disparity in Inquisitorial procedure regarding Jews, as well as the evidence examined, especially in Modena. This was where the Duke uses the detailed testimony to be found in Inquisitorial trial transcripts to analyse Jewish interaction with Christian society in an early modern community.

In 1598, the year that Duke Cesare d'Este lost Ferrara to Papal forces and moved the capital of his duchy to Modena, the Papal Inquisition in Modena was elevated from vicariate to full Inquisitorial status. This chapter studies the political situation in Modena, the socio-religious predicament of Modenese Jews, how the Roman Inquisition in Modena was established despite ducal restrictions and finally the steps taken by the Holy Office to gain jurisdiction over professing Jews. The presence of Jews in the duchy of Modena can be traced back to 1025. Three centuries later, in 1336, when the city came under the rule of the Estense dukes based in Ferrara, Duke Borso I d'Este granted the Modenese Jews privileges which entitled them to maintain religious institutions and to lend money at moderate interest. During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Modena proved to be a safe haven for Jewish difference.

in Jews on trial
An American perspective

This chapter discusses the important role that scientists play in elevating the visibility of the research enterprise. The author provides compelling survey data regarding the invisibility of science and scientists among the public and how that impacts decision-making by policymakers who tend to either ignore or on occasion undercut science. She argues that if scientists overcome their reluctance to engage with non-scientists and actively advocate the value of research, it will be a much higher public and national priority.

in The freedom of scientific research
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Across a century of contestation, this chapter engages with processes of transformation, often – although not necessarily – violent, driven by actors both within and beyond territorial borders. In many cases, such transformations were revolutionary, violent dislocations between past and future that radically altered the cultural landscape of a particular area. Yet such transformations also possess an economic dimension as foreign powers sought to capitalise on opportunities provided by domestic upheaval, while political elites began processes of modernisation as they sought to forge contemporary states from the embers of uncertainty.

This chapter offers a genealogy of states in the region from the mandate period until the demise of Da’ish in the summer of 2018. It focuses upon five distinct eras, allowing for exploration of the interaction of regional trends with domestic factors in the creation of political projects.

in Houses built on sand

Robert Burton indicates that love, just like melancholy, can be detected through a number of symptoms, which are similar to the symptoms of melancholy that are consistently identified in the medical literature of the period. This chapter examines the effects of love melancholy over the senses in the works of an early modern woman writer, Mary Wroth. Wroth's works deal with love melancholy, and consistently evoke its effects over the characters in terms of an opposition between the 'external' and the 'internal senses'. The chapter demonstrates that this distinction was formulated by Thomas Aquinas in the Middle Ages and had an important influence on Renaissance medicine. It examines several examples taken first from Countess of Montgomery's Urania, then from Love's Victory, and finally from Pamphilia to Amphilanthus, which best illustrate Wroth's understanding of love melancholy as a disruption of the division between the 'external' and the 'internal senses'.

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660
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Omnibus literature and popular culture in nineteenth-century Paris

This chapter introduces the genre of omnibus literature and places it in the broader cultural context of literary and print culture of the 1830s-50s, the period when popular print culture emerges in France. Omnibus literature comprises works that not only take on this vehicle as a subject or a setting, but also use it as an organizing principle and are characterized by shared formal features, such as episodic narrative, collaborative authorship, and multi-genre texts. The omnibus was thus an “engine of modernity” both as an urban and social innovation, and because it generated innovative modes of writing. Thus, chapter 1 establishes specific ways in which omnibuses provided a literary model for works of popular literature such as Edouard Gourdon’s Physiologie de l’omnibus (1842), Louis Huart’s ‘Les Voitures publiques’ from Nouveau Tableau de Paris au XIXe siècle (1834), Paris-en-omnibus (1856), and the vaudeville play Un omnibus ou la revue en voiture (1828), among others. The narrative form of omnibus literature mirrors the vehicle’s capacity to capture the multiplicity of urban experiences.

in Engine of modernity
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Women and public transport

This chapter focuses on representations of female passengers and the ways that popular literature and visual culture grappled with gendered perceptions of public spaces. The omnibus was among the few public sites where men and women could legitimately share close quarters without violating rules of propriety. Yet in many documents the omnibus was portrayed as a site of female sexual transgression. The narrow interior of the omnibus encapsulated the tensions and ambiguities surrounding women who were out and about in the city. From young bourgeois maidens flirting with their seatmates to kitchen cooks holding baskets with suggestively spilling produce; from prostitutes soliciting clients to adulteresses giving assignations to lovers; from pregnant women delivering babies to wet nurses exposing their voluminous bosoms, representations of female passengers highlight a profound unease about the collapse of boundaries between public and private spheres, and about women’s newly found visibility and freedom of urban locomotion. In this chapter I offer an analysis of a mythology that linked female omnibus passengers with transgressive sexual behavior in texts by well-known authors like Emile Zola and Guy de Maupassant as well as lesser-known writers such as Gourdon and Delors, in addition to works of visual culture.

in Engine of modernity
America and Trump in the Asia Pacific

The United States under Donald Trump has begun to chart a radically new course in Asia, a region that has long relied on America for stability and maintaining the balance of power. Trump has reversed, or sought to reverse, many of the long-standing policies and initiatives pursued by his predecessors, with potential long-term implications for the global balance of power. A multilateral and multifaceted engagement strategy in the region is being replaced by a transactional approach to security, trade and governance. This approach seeks to maximise gains while shifting risk to counterparties in a series of asymmetric transactions and deals which risk eroding a strategic leadership position decades in the making. Trump’s ‘America First’ agenda represents an abandonment of leadership in the setting of international norms for trade, investment and security, providing an opportunity for other countries to fill the vacuum being left behind. Long-term shifts in the political landscape which result will be difficult to predict, and their impact on trade, capital and financial flows cannot be planned for.

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific