Open Access (free)
Svante Norrhem and Erik Thomson

The chapter introduces the concept of subsidies and gives an overall view of the various uses of subsidies in the early modern period. Subsidies were ubiquitous features of diplomatic and military history throughout the early modern period, although such payments could assume a wide variety of names and forms. The early modern era also saw numerous variations of subsidy alliances. The most frequent as well as important subsidizers – in terms of sums – were France, Spain, the United Provinces, and England. On the receiving end, Sweden, Denmark, the Swiss confederation, the United Provinces, and a number of German and northern Italian states stand out. The reason why subsidies deserve more attention is that they highlight the manner in which resources were shared among sovereignties, and the manner in which diplomacy rested upon allies promising to share money and grant access to resources as a prominent part of diplomacy, military provisioning, and the construction of early modern states.

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Open Access (free)
Balancing the self in the twentieth century
Mark Jackson and Martin D. Moore

This chapter introduces the volume’s major arguments and themes. It provides a critical account of prominent theorisations of balance and selfhood, and surveys and frames each contribution to the volume. In doing so, the chapter outlines what has been at stake in projects for achieving balanced selves in the twentieth century. It not only makes plain how historical investigations into balanced selfhood complicate assumptions about the links between individualised balance and forms of production or political regimes, but also highlights the malleability and multi-valence of balance as a concept. It argues, therefore, that the volume not only contributes to the cultural history of an everyday concept, but also generates insights into the history of health governance and subjectivity, and into the close connections between medicine, politics and the regulation of social life.

in Balancing the self
Erik Thomson

This chapter focuses on the entrepreneur Jean Hoeufft who remitted subsidies not only to the United Provinces and Sweden but also to many of France’s other allies during most of the Thirty Years’ War, including Hesse-Cassel and Transylvania. It deals with Hoeufft’s role as the organizer of subsidy payments from the king of France to his allies and argues that French foreign policy would not have functioned without him. Hoeufft came to occupy a quasi-diplomatic status, possessing commissions of different sorts from France, Sweden, and the United Provinces. The chapter details the different structure of the payments, detailing how the French paid much more to remit the Swedish subsidies than the Dutch ones. Hoeufft’s credit came to be viewed as necessary to the alliance, enabling him to secure payment from the notoriously unreliable French. For Hoeufft, the Cardinals’ foreign policy, and particularly the payment of subsidies, enabled his entrepreneurial strategy, allowing his family to profit from occupying a unique position in European commerce and politics while advancing the Calvinist cause.

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Visualising obesity as a public health concern in 1970s and 1980s Britain
Jane Hand

This chapter examines the use of visual images to promote healthy eating as a tool of disease prevention in British health education during the 1970s and 1980s. It analyses the activities of the HEC, and especially its poster output, in reorienting nutrition as a major part of its activities, and simultaneously highlights the role of public information films and commercial television in providing ancillary educative content through the documentary format. Though representing only a fraction of the filmic and poster material produced on nutrition and disease at this time, these examples reveal how scientific knowledge about dietetics and disease causation were entangled in a range of cultural and representational practices focused on tropes of gender, body image and the ‘cult’ of slimming. By coding disease risk in terms of particular visual attributes and specific practical preventive measures, these images functioned to express and articulate specific health ideologies. These ideologies promoted the idea that individualised health risks, often visualised through the obese body, could be overcome (at least in part) by complying with a myriad of health advice that together would construct individual balanced good health.

in Balancing the self
Peter H. Wilson

The chapter argues that we need to set subsidies in their wider context as just one of many ways of transferring war-making resources across political jurisdictions. Subsidies belong to the contractual forms which emerged during early modernity and which in this chapter are termed Fiscal-Military Instruments. Direct recruitment, foreign regiments, auxiliary troops and subsidy troops were all Fiscal-Military Instruments which evolved across early modernity as ways of transferring men, money, materials, services, information, and expertise between partners. Such instruments facilitated what were high-risk arrangements between partners who were often justified in mistrusting each other.

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Open Access (free)
Practices, conflicts, and impact in the sixteenth century
Philippe Rogger

The chapter argues that Swiss reception of pensions in the sixteenth century implied asymmetrical political relations between the Swiss Confederacy and its allies. There was significant dependence on France as a patron power with respect to both private and public pensions. The study shows the growing political importance of external involvement and makes it clear that the elites with informal connections to France benefited personally from foreign-policy relations. Foreign involvement became something of an obligation which no political actor could avoid. The picture of pensions painted by the treaties as a sign of French royal affection, and the equality suggested by the friendly rhetoric of the military alliances, thus constituted an unconvincing attempt to conceal the asymmetry in Franco-Swiss political relations.

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Natasha Feiner

This chapter outlines how and why civil aviation schedules were regulated in the post-war period, tracing the shifting regulatory relationships between the British state, business and individual workers during the four decades after 1954. It argues that programmes to manage imbalance did not neatly map onto broader changes in British politics. Throughout the second half of the twentieth century, British governments consistently refused to formally control airline schedules. Regulations limiting working hours and attempting to balance the duty cycle were introduced, but responsibility for fatigue management ultimately remained with individual pilots, and regulation and enforcement thus continued to be permissive and flexible. Despite supposed shifts from social democratic to neo-liberal governments in Britain, a liberal, gentlemanly professionalism remained a consistent frame for the regulation of work and fatigue. Through its examination of aviation scheduling, therefore, this chapter asks how and why new selves were constructed and regulated in the post-war period at the expense of structural adjustments to working environments; sets out a new timeline for twentieth-century subjectivity; and historicises present-day concerns with work-life balance and the costs of overwork.

in Balancing the self
Sweden and the lesser powers in the long eighteenth century
Erik Bodensten

This chapter explores the strategic challenges facing the lesser powers during the long eighteenth century. It also examines to what extent the emergence of a new European states system, the novel scale and intensity of warfare, and the growing strength of the fiscal-military state over time rendered the role of the lesser states as subsidy recipients more problematic, not only in the Holy Roman Empire but also in a more general European sense. With Sweden as the point of departure, this study allows us to acquire a deeper understanding of the conditions under which the lesser powers acted, as well as of the reasons why the international system increasingly came to be dominated by the great powers.

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Anuschka Tischer

The focus of this chapter is on the notion and practice of subsidies in French politics and diplomacy in the seventeenth century. For France subsidies were an important means in the struggle against the House of Habsburg, a means that was made possible by the fact that the realm was quite advanced in its state-building process and that the king hence had a solid income through taxes. By means of its subsidies, France influenced the state-building process in other territories and also contributed to the fact that a balance between Protestants and Catholics was reached in Germany and Europe.

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Dietary advice and agency in North America and Britain
Nicos Kefalas

This chapter traces the history of healthy eating in the second half of the twentieth century in terms of the advice offered by the authors of self-help books in the USA and UK. It examines the transatlantic nature of programmes for balance, comparing advice about obesity and dieting, exploring the cultural authority of celebrity dietitians and assessing the degree of knowledge exchange between the two countries. In doing so, it investigates the ways in which readers learned about ‘healthy eating’ on a day-to-day level, generating a detailed historical analysis of the ‘healthy diet’ ideal and the ways in which the self-help genre contributed to the ‘health manufacturing’ process. Mobilising persuasive motivational language along with scientific jargon, self-help authors were able to simultaneously promote their own status and appeal to readers’ sense of agency. Analysis of self-help also reveals, however, the controversies associated with self-help and the promotion of healthy balanced diets.

in Balancing the self