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Oonagh McDonald

This chapter examines the regulation of the Big Five investment banks in the context of the changes which took place in the structure of banking after the repeal of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act 1999 (GLBA). It also examines the introduction of the European Union's Consolidated Supervision Directive in 2004. The Act did not 'repeal' the Glass-Steagall Act in its entirety, but only repealed sections 20 and 32, which prohibited member banks from affiliating with organizations dealing in securities. The Federal Reserve became the 'umbrella' supervisor for any Financial Holding Company owning a bank; under its 'streamlined supervision' remit, the Federal Reserve was limited in its day-to-day authority to oversee functionally regulated non-banking subsidiaries of the holding companies. Though the Securities and Exchange Commission had adequate tools and statutory backing for taking on the consolidated supervision of the Big Five investment banks, its inability to carry out effective supervision was revealed soon.

in Lehman Brothers