This chapter synthesises the understandings of both passing and gender which, hitherto, have mainly been discussed separately, in order to explore the ways in which many male agents chose to play upon dominant ideas of masculinity in their enactments. The examination of agents' accounts has facilitated an analysis of their different constructions of wartime masculinities. While a tone of disrespect can be detected in 'heroic' narratives, disapproval can be perceived in 'stoic' accounts. The strategies pursued by male agents might be accounted for by considering their age and pre-SOE lifestyles. The analysis of male agents' retrospective constructions of their lifestyles in wartime France and of the ways in which they chose to pass emphasises their investments in particular kinds of gendered performances. They were not merely imitating French civilians but were performing French civilian masculinities, choosing from a repertoire of masculinities those which they considered appropriate to their cover stories.
This chapter considers the membership strength of Britain's interwar fascist parties, and other areas of related interest such as the social-class and occupational profiles of fascist 'joiners'. Reliable material on the membership in the official fascist sources, in particular, is extremely scarce. Fascist newspaper sources are less useful, however, if we are attempting to arrive at an estimation of a fascist party's membership strength. Membership figures put out by the fascist press are notoriously unreliable. The significance of the National Fascisti and the IFL lay in areas other than the number of members they attracted, though. Both parties had pitifully small memberships. Social-class and occupational analyses of fascist memberships undoubtedly help us to arrive at a greater awareness of the nature of fascism, not least because they impel us to focus on the structural or objective determinants of recruitment.
This chapter is an introduction to sound in television. All microphones convert sound waves into electrical signals. There are many models of microphone in TV studios. Each has its uses but this is not the best place for a full analysis. Although there are others, the kinds the readers are likely to come across fall into one of three types: condenser, dynamic and ribbon. Booms are good where the readers wish to avoid seeing mikes in shot. They are good where radio mikes would look out of place and where they cannot be concealed: in a drama. If the original is the better choice, it is sometimes possible to remove the offending sound from that take without affecting the dialogue but leaving a very noticeable hole in the soundtrack. An atmos track happily fills the gap. The absolute silence of 'no signal' is very obvious and will always need attention.
Of the minor fascist parties during the 1920s the National Fascisti (NF) was the most significant. It was formed by a group of disaffected British Fascisti activists who split from the parent body in late 1924. The NF would look to the recent experiences of Mussolini, and particularly the squadristiy for inspiration and guidance. There are a small number of impressionistic assessments of the NF's membership strength given in the contemporary and postwar accounts. The 1930s threw up another fascist party, the Unity Band, which managed to outlive most of its contemporaries among the minor parties. Like many leading British fascists between the wars, Seton Hutchison was a disillusioned First World War veteran. Prior to his attempts to establish himself as Britain's Fiihrer, Seton Hutchison was a member of the BUF, but was expelled for 'improper conduct', an experience that left him very embittered towards Mosley.
Music used in any kind of public performance will cost money. As far as music in television is concerned, there are, according to a representative of the UK's MCPS-PRS Alliance, four basic ways of using music in a film or TV production, whatever the source: titles and credits, featured, incidental, and ephemeral. The first two of these categories often command higher fees than the second pair. The problem with music from any of the sources is that someone else may hit on the same choice of track for very different content. A better solution is to commission the readers' own composer, even if it is costly. Given that a musical performance can cover anything from a Beethoven symphony to an unaccompanied solo singer, all the author can do is to offer some basic approaches to shooting music in real time in a multi-camera as-live setting.
This chapter repudiates the increasingly common attempts to read contemporary politics through the lens of populism. It argues that a notion of populism, if overstated, risks analytically obscuring the racial nationalisms that in fact underlie any such populist politics. First, there are many dissenters who cite Catalonia and Scotland as countervailing witnesses to the possibilities of progressive nationalism. The chapter suggests that the progressive nationalism case remains too anachronistic and distorted a reading of what contemporary nationalisms, especially those carved from within Europe, are currently capable of. As regards populism, it also suggests that this concept, if even necessary, is best read from within nationalism, it enjoys very little substantive content that is sufficiently distinctive to remain meaningfully outside of an understanding of nationalism.
The doctrines of the British fascist parties were forged from a complex amalgamation of ideas of varying degrees of sophistication and crudity that emanated from a range of sources. The origins of British fascism should not only be sought in ideas and intellectual currents, however. Other forces and tendencies in society, of a social, economic, technological, political and cultural nature, contributed to its emergence, nourished its growth and shaped its subsequent development. Advocates of social-imperialism and national efficiency who ascribed to Social-Darwinist principles would also prove important to the development of British fascist ideas. Besides being a positivist and a progenitor of national socialism, C. Arthur Pearson was a eugenicist, who in 1911 became the first Galton Professor of Eugenics at the University of London. At the more general level, British fascism bequeathed from Social-Darwinism the notion of evolutionary development and ascent to more advanced modes of biological existence.
This chapter provides some general points about safety in TV studios, whether student or professional. There are some points about safety on location because it is sometimes necessary to include one or more single-camera sequences in a predominantly studio-based project. There are two aspects to safety: the readers' own protection and their responsibility to others. In almost all circumstances, whether on location or in a stage or studio, a production will have to generate a risk assessment form. This will indicate the level of risk associated with the production and the precautions that have been taken. Film and TV studios and locations are notorious for cables snaking across the floor. Most studios have a fire lane, which may extend all around the studio. The readers must learn safe procedures for each piece of equipment they use. It is advisable that professionals should each have their own public liability insurance.
This chapter bridges more advanced student work and some challenges of the professional world. The reformatting, including re-editing, and conversion of original content is the province of specialists. By 2009, it appeared to be a growing sector in television production. It is not necessary for everyone to understand the fine detail, but professional production teams should allow for multimedia outputs as they plan their content. 360-degree television (3DTV) gives an image perceived in three dimensions. Early 3D rigs were two HD cameras bolted together; this was problematic because differences within the stereoscopic image are more obvious than small differences between consecutive 2D images. 3DTV can produce headaches and nausea in the viewer. Its techniques work best when used subtly.
This chapter analyses veterans' retrospective reconstructions of their captivity, which offers an opportunity to explore the experiences of those whose passing was exposed. Analysis of the penalties levied on those who assume alternative personae and are found out is crucial in order to be able to fully understand the risks that were run by passing subjects. Of the 441 male agents sent to France, over one hundred were arrested and incarcerated in French prisons and seventeen of the thirty-nine women experienced long-term captivity. The explicitly gendered experiences of captivity for male and female political prisoners continued within concentration camps. Although agents' passing undoubtedly saved some from being identified as SOE agents and executed as 'foreign spies', their performances in themselves neither precipitated their release nor protected them from torture. Analysis of agents' accounts has also uncovered the gender dynamics that were in operation during interrogations and in concentration camps.